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"Any realistic model of a real-world phenomenon must take into account the possibility of randomness... [M[ore often than not, the quantities we are interested in... will exhibit an inherent variation that should be taken into account by the model."


Sheldon Ross

Bro. Brown's statistics reference pages


Here are links to pages concerning various topics and tools from introductory (and sometimes intermediate) statistics. Some of these pages are brief, formal reviews. Some aren't so brief or formal! Some are done in the style of actual classroom experiences.


As with most of the site, this page and the pages it links to are very much under construction. Only that which is blue and underlined is an active link. Please report any broken active links, typos, and other errors to Brother Brown at brownd@byui.edu. Thanks!


To help you understand some basic statistical concepts, I recommend the Java applets for statistics on the disk that comes with your statistics text. True, it can be annoying to learn how to use applets, but doing so gives you another skill set and that much more power over your own learning. You'll know you've arrived when you find yourself playing with the applets, asking---and answering---"what if?" questions, and maybe even having some fun with it.


Basic Issues in Statistics


     Principles of Statistics


     Randomness and Statistics


          Part 1: Statistics are random


          Part 2: Variability of Statistics


          Part 3: Bias in statistics


     Infinite populations


     Distributions of Sample Means

            An activity I sometimes use in class to create hooks in the students' minds, upon which a description of the distribution of sample means may be hung.



Descriptive Statistics


     Graphs, plots and charts


     Frequency and relative frequency


     Measures of location


     Measures of center


     Measures of variability




     Measures of association


     Pearson’s correlation coefficient


     The coefficient of determination


     Least-squares linear regression




     Exploratory data analysis


Interval estimation


     Confidence intervals


     Confidence limits


     Prediction intervals



Hypothesis Testing


     Introduction to hypothesis tests


     The steps of an hypothesis test


     Exercises in writing hypotheses


     Exercises on type I and type II errors


     One sample z-tests


     Visually assessing normality


     The Shapiro-Wilk test of normality


     One-sample t-tests


     Matched-pairs t-tests


     Two-sample t-tests




     Testing claims about Pearson’s correlation coefficient


     Testing claims about a least-squares regression line


     Conducting a complete least-squares linear regression analysis


     Chi-Squared tests for two-way tables

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