CHAP 16

STEP ONE: Goodbye to the Catholic church

Two great infusions of Greek learning into Europe:
1. First was earlier when Greek texts came to Europe through Spain/Moors. In 1105 Toledo falls/Spanish libraries opened to reveal vastly superior knowledge of Arabs and Greeks
        people start to read Aristotle
                leads to problems in the church for he used the scientific method.
2. 1453 Fall of Constantinople
        Printing center is Venice
                half the workers of biggest shop were Greek refugees from Constantinople
                translate all Greek books by 1515
                Europe starts reading Greeks again

1454 Gutenberg invents movable type
        uniform letter size
        used only 23 letters
                more was an insult to your intelligence
        need for accuracy (reader may know more than you)
        leads to fragmentation of knowledge/experts

Man is Reborn
        all this leads to the Renaissance
        “Man is the measure of all things,” again. (Protagorus)
 

Why did the Renaissance happen?
A.- the main institutions of the Middle Ages start to weaken
    1. Feudalism is put aside by rising middle class
            before there were only two social classes/now 3
            cities provide jobs
            better food = more people
            guilds create wealth in middle class
    2. Chivalry is outdated, men seek fame and $$ instead of doing good deeds
    3. Holy roman empire starts to collapse from internal decay
            asceticism is no longer in vogue
    4. Guilds (labor unions) of middle ages collapse in face of new capitalism

B. There is now a rise of:
    1. Optimism—man is OK
    2. Individualism: thanks to Luther and Mohammed there is no more need for the clergy—each
            man can save himself
    3. Secularism: do away with Scholasticism of church (rational), and move to Secularism
            (empirical) and study of science.
    4. Humanism: study Man, not God
            Humanities, not Theology

Humanism starts it all
    The Renaissance, and Humanism, begins in Florence.
    Alberti: “To you is given a body more graceful than other animals,
power of apt and various movements, sharp and delicate senses, wit, reason,
memory like an immortal god.” This is not the gloomy outlook of the Middle Ages.
        “A man can do all things if he will.” Alberti
        (The glory of God is intelligence.)

Why did it start in Italy?
    1. Italy had a strong love of the past
        Roman history includes Troy/Greeks/Aeneas
        book shop was 50% Greek employees
        studied the ancients, not God; Humanism
    2. Italy was the trade center of Eastern Europe/ all the crusaders had gone through Italy.
    3. Greek refugees came there
        Turks invade Constantinople in 1453, with two immediate consequences:
        a. forces Europe to find new route to Orient
        b. refugees flee to Italy
                take manuscripts with them to Venice
                emphasis on Man; here, not heaven.
                ambition, glory, passions, riches are all new to Western thought, but quickly catch on.
        c. believe in mastery over the Earth, thus explore countries
    4. it was politically ready
    A weak pope—in mid 1200's the throne of the Holy Roman Empire is left vacant for almost 20 years. The new king proves too weak to deal with any more than his own family, so outside interests start looking over Italy.
An argument between the French king Phillip IV and Pope Boniface VIII leads to the latter's arrest. He dies from embarrassment, and French elect their own pope in 1300 and transfer the papacy to Avignon
        it will return to Rome 70 years later
        While the pope is away, individual city states become very powerful (Florence) and independent of the pope
        Many merchants in Florence (on road between Venice and Rome)
        Medici family controls for 60 years
        Civic pride keeps them from joining Rome
        Civil wars cause Milan to seek French aid.
                leads to French invasion in 1494
                        This is why Leonardo dies in Paris/Mona
        Even during the High Renaissance Italy is firmly divided into five different countries.

Why Florence?
    Because the people there were pragmatic realists.
    Like the Greeks, they asked questions and wanted answers.
    Our contemporary attitude of pretending to understand works of art in order not to appear stupid would have been absurd to them.
    They were curious, extremely intelligent, loved pretty things, and were willing to work for them.
    Florence was directed for 30 years by humanists!, men who believed that learning could be used to achieve a happy life. (What do we use as a gauge today?)
    The study of Man begins in Florence, with Petrarch (first “humanist”)1304-74
            he advocated pleasure in the noble life HERE
            not chivalry, but FAME.
                    study history and languages
                    no more religion
                    leads to expansion of universities
Platonic Academy 1462 is set up in Florence by Cosimi de Medici run by Ficino
seek God through beauty (Platonic forms), thus, good art is a form of worship (like fishing on Sunday)
        circle and square are perfect, as is God
        Pico della Mirandola writes ON THE DIGNITY OF MAN
                advocates Man, is positive
                “virtu” is highest goal of human existence
                        intelligence skill in all fields AND action
                        Mormons agree/all can become Gods
                        optimism vs. pessimism

Problems of humanism:
    became snobbish and aristocratic, for only wealthy could afford time and money for art
    Do you educate the mind or the soul?
            mind=scientific/outer world
            soul=aesthetic/inner world/God
            Which do we educate today? both?
            What should a good education contain?  Is GE enough?

The new world of Science:
    Ptolemy — (200AD) geocentric universe/this is standard doctrine of the Church and Middle ages
    Copernicus — (Poland) 1473-1543, questions validity of geocentric logic/says math would be
        easier if heliocentric
    Galileo — 1564-1642, confirms sun as center
        bright child - discovers pendulum effect at age 20
        Law of Falling Bodies (gravity)/all bodies fall at same
                rate, regardless of their weight. (drops balls off Tower of
        Pisa, Aristotle said heavy ball would hit first)
                forced to leave university because of his beliefs
        1609 - grinds own lenses to study moon
        Aristotle says moon is its own light source, and is smooth. Galileo says otherwise.
        discovers rings of Saturn
        takes telescope to Rome and shows pope sunspots,
                but pope still doesn't believe (wrong size/too big)
        books banned for 200 years
                (this is when/why he studies gravity at Pisa)
        inquisition calls him in 1632/tortured/finally denies all
        Newton uses Galileo's findings to publish his own works

Descartes — 1596-1650 scientific theory of the composition of the universe.
        Agrees with Democritus (all matter is composed of atoms of identical substance).
        “Reality” is the motion of these atoms in space and time.
        God was “engineer” who started this motion, but since then He has done
                nothing but oil a few parts.
                “He made of Nature a machine, and nothing but a machine.”
        Divides all things into two categories:
                Primary: (measurable)/science/math
                Secondary:(non measurable) soul/religion
        Is more concerned with How than with Why, so science becomes more important (measurable)
        (What’s very interesting about all this is that this division of study – between measurable and non-measurable things, results in the two foci of today’s education: a BA degree (how can you measure art?) and a BS degree, a very measurable world.)
 

Some Important Dates
1453 Fall of Constantinople to the Turks
        people move west, taking their books and learning with them
        close eastern spice routes / forces men to seek a different route
1454 movable type; Gutenberg
        gunpowder (from China/Marco Polo/no one believed him)
1486 Diaz sails around Cape of Good Hope, Africa
1492 Columbus
1494 Line of Demarcation / Pope divides world between
        Spain (Americas - west of line)
        Portugal (Africa and Brazil - east of line)
        England (gets nothing/still too small/not powerful) sends John Cabot to find
            Northwest Passage, but he settles for North America instead
        French — claim Canada/fur trappers
1497 DeGama sails around Africa to India
1500 Balboa sees and names Pacific from Panama
1503 Mona Lisa
1508-12 Sistine Chapel
1513 Machiavelli The Prince
1519 Magellan sails around the world
 

STEP TWO: The Reformation; Man still wants religion, but not the Catholic type

1. Europe was ready for a change.
    Renaissance brought a new work ethic.
        church believed you should do physical work for your living (by sweat of your brow)
            Bankers resent being told they are sinners – making interest requires no sweat
            What is a “fair” wage?  OK to keep a fair wage, but give excess to Church
            (Law of Consecration)
            Is it wrong to want to keep it all?
            If I have the brains then why not the reward?
        New World was dumping millions into Europe
            People mad because money is all going to Italy, not local
                (St. Peter’s; needed $50M) (pope sees Germany as weak, France/England strong)
            Church started demanding more and more small taxes
                (tithing, budget, welfare, scouting, food drives, etc.)

2. Should the Church rule over a King?
        church had been in charge for 1,000 years, but was it correct?
        Should church run all of Europe, every country?
        Should church taxes get all the New World wealth?
        Does Church possess all knowledge?
                (Men in Black – heliocentric vs. geocentric, etc.)
                Doctrine of Infallibility of Pope (SLC)
 
3. Rebellion of common people against known abuses in church
    1. many clergy were so ignorant they couldn't read mass
    2. led scandalous lives/kept gaming houses/taverns
    3. ignored vows of chastity (said a mistress was OK because she wasn't a “wife”)
    4. religious offices were sold the highest bidder
    5. “dispensations” were sold to relieve you of a previous vow, or exemption to a church law
    6.upset about sale of indulgences
        (treasury of salvation thanks to martyrs and saints)
        (Pope told bankers they could keep 33% of all collected)
    7.veneration of sacred relics was a farce

BUT: abuses were not the primary cause of Reformation, it was doctrine and political power.

Two schools of thought evolve in Church:
1. Church's view/Peter Lombard and St. Thomas Aquinas
        a. View of 11th and 12th century
        b. Since Man is evil he can only get to heaven with help: he must receive the 7 sacraments,
            which can only be admin. by the clergy
            Position of church in Luther's day
Enter Martin Luther
    - was having a personal crisis of disbelief “I hate the Lord”
    - A priest told him to bury himself in studying the scriptures, where he discovered the doctrine of faith (not faith AND works) was all you needed.

2. Luther’s view/Augustinianism (Augustine and Paul)
        a. omnipotent God who sees and knows all
        b. Man is hopelessly depraved, and therefore cannot bring forth good works.
        c. God has predestined a certain few for heaven.
        d. Man should place his fate entirely in hands of God
                (so clergy and sacrament are NOT necessary)
                Luther believed this way.

Luther's conclusions:
    nails 95 thesis on door (bulletin board) of church (1517) at Wittenburg
    1. final authority is the scriptures
    2. faith (not ordinances) is all you need for salvation
        therefore salvation comes directly from God, and does not need a priest or church ritual as
        intermediary 

Problem: if final authority is scriptures, who interprets??
        this leads to many different churches/interpretations and our 1st amendment.

People see Luther as way to break with Italy
        backed by princes: see chance to increase power
        in 40 years, half of Europe is Protestant

The Reformers and their beliefs:
    Wanted to return to original beliefs
    1. Ren. celebrated the Human, while the old beliefs had contempt for this life and material things.)
    2. Ren. wanted urbanity and tolerance (new), while
                Calvin and group wanted faith and conformity (old).

John Wyclif
        Oxford professor
        denounces immorality of the clergy
        condemns temporal power of the Church
        recommends marriage of clergy
        insists of supreme authority of the Scriptures
        denies transubstantiation

Zwingli
        starts bible study in 1506
        1518 joins Luther's cause
        1519 starts reform movement/(later killed in battle, 1531)
        1522 67 proofs to reform the church
        denies supreme authority of the pope (lies in God only)
        critical of worldly popes
        study the bible and return church to its original purity
        city life is better than rural life
        believes in predestination

Results:
1. rebirth of faith among common people
2. reassessment of principals by church leaders

Calvin
        born in Lyon, France, 1509
        father is lawyer to local bishop
        Calvin gets M.A. then on to become a lawyer/attends many universities
            encounters two schools of thought:
            * 1. rhetoric — truth is that which changes people
            2. dialectic — truth is how well your answer fits into the scheme of things (Greek)
        he adopts #1 and becomes a Protestant at age 23 (1532)
        goes to Switzerland two years later, to study Luther
                three years later (1536) he writes his best book, also best book of Reformation: The
                Institutes of Christian Religion (also the best book on Protestant doctrine)

        But problems — new edition each year, each more radical.
        Says salvation is based on and shown by correct moral conduct.
        Duty of civil govt to protect and serve the church
                wrong acts were punished in civil courts
                very strict laws/no dancing/drinking/fancy clothes
        Predestination ( only 144,000 will make it)
                so, whatever happens is because God wanted it that way
        *Wealth is good — parable of the talents/ earthly success is
                heavenly success (forerunner of Capitalism) (make more $$ and God loves you more)
        1538 Geneva throws him out — too radical, but is asked to
                return three years later, and dies there in 1564.
 
        Results: followed by John Knox, Scotland, who creates the Church of Scotland, which
            becomes Presbyterians of America, Puritans of England, Dutch Reformers of Holland

Henry VIII
            Wanted a son; no divorce in Catholic church so he breaks with it and starts Church of England; razes all monasteries and Catholic shrines.
            Six wives (and still no heir)
            1. Catherine of Aragon (Spain); divorced in 1533
            2. Anne Bolyn; baby girl (Elizabeth); beheaded 1536
            3. Jane Semour; son Edward (sickly; will die at age 8); she dies in childbirth
            4. Anne of Cleves; divorce after 6 months
            5. Kathryn Howard; only 15 and he’s old; beheaded 1542
            6. Katherine Parr; a good friend whom he married; outlives him.
            After all this it will be Elizabeth who will reign.

STEP THREE: The Catholic church fights back with the Counter-Reformation
        Church's answer to Luther
        Council of Trent 1545-63 to define all doctrine
                music redefined, almost removed (Palestrina saves it)
                art, architecture subdued
        Inquisition revived: medieval courts / torture used

Rise of Capitalism due to Reformation
        Protestant work ethic / a good man shall prosper
                Guilds of middle ages produced only as needed/price and
                quantity were controlled/no competition
        Capitalism creates “companies” which can buy, sell, sue
                it exists only to make money
                competition is normal
                creates individuals/every man for himself
                floods market with goods/only the good survive
                increases cash flow for all; money = power

Reaction in Italy
    1. almost none (everyone is Catholic)
            deny the pope/lose your job
    2. many who were disillusioned simply quit the church
            we do the same today/ “all churches are corrupt”
            (non-practicing catholic)
 
Effects of Reformation; Europe is forever changed
1. created strong nationalistic movements
2. increased education (split it from church)
3. allowed individual interpretation of bible
4. starts capitalism
5. changes world from a Christian/Middle Age world to
    a European/Renaissance world

Middle Ages                                                             Renaissance
—————————————————————————————
agrarian                                                                     urban
sin in riches                                                                good to be wealthy
guilds                                                                         capitalism/companies
church in power                                                         kings, princes in power
life at home                                                                travel, trade
born to your social level                                             can rise above social level
rich or poor                                                               middle class

6. all this leaves the common man afraid, unsure
        what is the new standard (old is Church)

Man SHOULD be great, but sometimes isn't (God or Animal?)
Shakespeare will ask: “Is life a tragedy?”
        with man in control, can we achieve our best?
        which man can best lead us?

Is virtu what it’s all about?

Is this “personal freedom”?

Which society is best?