White Bar

Schedule

Friday, March 27

 6:00 pm                     Welcome Reception                                                                  Romney Foyer
 7:00 pm                     Plenary Session                                                                         Romney 172
                                        Welcome:      Dr. Brian Pyper, Conference Chairman
                                       Remarks:       President Kim B. Clark, President, BYU-Idaho
                                        Keynote:       Dr. Victor Miguenes, Professor of Astronomy, Brigham Young University
Immediately following                     Planetarium Show                                                    Romney 107

 Saturday, March 28

7:00 - 8:00am             Registration                                                                             Romney foyer

8:00 - 10:00 am        Poster session                                                                          Romney foyers

 10:00 - 12:00 am      Concurrent Oral Sessions by Discipline

                                        Social Science Ag business, Exercise and Sport Science,

                                         and Mathematics                                                                      Romney 172

                                        Physics and Engineering                                                         Romney 127

 12:00 - 1:00 pm        Judging / Lunch Break                                                                 Romney 126

 1:00 pm                        Awards Ceremony                                                                      Romney 172

  

Poster sessions will have presenters available at their display for the hour(s) to answer questions and explain their presentation.

Talks in the oral paper sessions will be 15 minutes - 12 minutes for the talk and 3 minutes for questions.

Awards to top three papers in each session.

Direct questions to: Dr. Brian Pyper, BYU-I Dept. of Physics, ROM 116, Rexburg, Idaho 83460-0520 (208)496-1925 pyperb@byui.edu

 

 

 

 

UGRC Program 2009

 

Poster Session

Romney Foyers

8:00 am

 

Galen E. Woodward                                           Agribusiness, Plant and Animal Sciences

Jared D. Williams

Blake D. Willis

Bryan G. Hopkins

 

Composting Effects in Low Organic Matter Soils of Highly Cultivated Areas

 

Reduced crop yields and potato tuber quality are suggested to be related to intensive cultivation in a potato/grain rotation system in southeast Idaho which results in low soil organic matter and subsequently decreases soil health. Application of soil amendments (e.g., compost and manure) can improve yield potential, increase soil fertility and organic matter content. A continued study has proposed that the effects of soil amendments benefit the levels organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), yield, and tuber quality. A four year rotation (winter wheat, winter wheat, alfalfa, and potatoes) with compost added before planting was compared to the same rotation without a soil amendment. The compost was steer feedlot manure (11.2 g kg-1 N and 7.0 g kg -1 P) and was applied before planting at the rate of 6.7 Mg ha-1 for wheat and alfalfa and at 11.2 Mg ha-1 for potatoes. Research plots were located on a Blackfoot silt loam and a Pocatello variant silt loam near Rexburg, Idaho. Bulk density and soil fertility samples were taken in the spring and after harvest and compared to native soils from the original year which included undisturbed soils from the same soil type as the research plots. Native soils had a bulk density of 1.14 g/cm3 which was lower than the plot bulk density of 1.51 g/cm3. For the research plot soils, CEC ranged from 12 to 15 cmolc kg-1 and yields for 2007 were 4.36 Mg ha-1 for wheat, 6.71 Mg ha-1 and 22.6 Mg ha-1 for potatoes. No statistical differences were observed between crop yield and quality for the compost and the control treatments. Soil tests showed that SOM in the research plots 19.3g kg-1 and 43.3g kg-1 for the native soils. The plots had lower fertility levels (e.g., total N and nitrate) than the native soils with the exception of phosphorus levels which were 73 kg ha-1 for native soils and 88 kg ha-1 for plot soils. The study is currently in second year of 12 years, and it is expected that composting will increasing soil carbon levels and provide nutrients to the plant which will reduce the amount of fertilizers need to obtain optimal crop yields and quality.

 

Scott Blauer                                                         Agribusiness, Plant and Animal Sciences

 

Tomato Hydroponic Greenhouse; Soilless Growth of Plants

 

Hydroponics is growing plants without soil in a nutrient enriched water solution. On a 6-9 month rotation, there is an average of 300 tomato plants grown in the Benson Building Greenhouse 279 G. The construction of the hydroponic greenhouse project began in January of 2006 with the first planting occurring by May of 2007. This hydroponic project includes the use of professors and students to maintain and manage its production. Our Hydroponics Greenhouse exists to: 1) Teach students what hydroponics is, how it works and what careers exist in the expanding hydroponics industry and 2) Produce quality tomatoes-our goal being to produce 1- 1.5 pounds per plant per week. With CO2 enrichment and grow lights, we hope to meet and surpass our goal each week while in production.

 

 

Poster Session

Romney Foyers

8:00 am

 

Matt A. Yost                                                        Agribusiness, Plant and Animal Science

Tyson D. Preslar

Jared D. Williams

 

Comparing Chlorophyll Meter Readings to Petiole Nitrate Samples for Nitrogen Fertilizer Response in Potatoes

 

The need to determine adequate nitrogen levels for potato crops in the Southeast Idaho during the growing season requires expensive petiole sample tests. The use of a SPAD Minolta chlorophyll meter by potato producers could reduce sampling costs and provide accurate in-season potato petiole nitrogen levels. The objective of this study is to compare the SPAD chlorophyll meter with petiole samples for accurately determining fertilizer response for in-season N fertilization of potato crops. Nitrogen treatments of 0, 112, 168, 224, and 280 kg ha-1 with four replications in a randomized complete block design were used to establish different N levels. Fertilizer was split applied with 56 kg N ha-1 applied at planting (except for the control treatment), and beginning in June, 56 kg ha-1 per week until treatment requirement was met. Nitrate petiole samples, chlorophyll meter readings, and soil nitrate (NO3-) tests were taken once a week for seven weeks beginning in mid-June. Chlorophyll meter readings were compared to petiole and soil NO3- levels which are current methods for determining in-season N fertilization need. Potato plots were harvested by digging three meters of two adjacent rows, and yields were determined based on total weight and weight by quality class. Yield data were compared with petiole NO3-, chlorophyll meter data, and soil NO3- levels for determining which method best predicted yield. When compared to the petiole NO3- sampling, the results showed that chlorophyll meter readings were 80-100% accurate for determining in-season N fertilizer response. Chlorophyll meter readings were not related to N fertilizer rates, soil NO3- , or yields. These poor relationships were a result of high and spatially variable nitrate levels within the potato plots. Based on the relationship between chlorophyll meter readings and leaf petiole NO­3-, chlorophyll meter readings could be used for in-season N fertilization decisions in potatoes in place of petiole nitrate.

 

Matt Taylor                                                         Agribusiness, Plant and Animal Sciences

 

Effect of Plant Spacing on Red Potato Yield and Tuber Quality

 

Current potato planting practices are 36 inch row spacing with 9 inch row plant spacing which results in under-utilization of sunlight for photosynthesis. The current practices require more days for a closed canopy which allows for more weeds. Red potato yields and quality could be improved by narrowing the plant spacing and increasing the plant density. The objectives of this study are to: 1) Determine the effect of plant and row spacing on red potato yield and quality and 2) Compare weed populations and density among different plant and row spacings.

 

Queena Tse                                                          Biology

 

High Titer Phage Lysate and Cosmid Library Construction for High Throughput of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis H37Rv Complementation

 

Bacteriophages, viruses with the ability to infect bacteria, are transfected with knockout phasmids. The knockout phasmids contain strains that complement one or several characterized genes in the cosmid library. The phages are transduced into target bacteria causing it to lyse at 37 ̊ C. This special transduction method of phages allows speedy development of vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacteriaum bovis and BCG. Specific genes selected for deleted strains by this process have resulted in attenuation. 

 

 

 

Poster Session

Romney Foyers

8:00 am

 

Norman Shurtliff                                                            Chemistry

Jeff Laugenour

 

Comparison of Extracts from Ginkgo Biloba: Supplements versus Leaves

 

The ginkgo biloba leaves contain compounds that may have medicinal properties. The flavonoid glycosides and terpenoids found in leaf extracts are associated with increased cognitive function and may be useful in treating neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Isolation of the flavonoids was successful from ginkgo leaves and compared to extractions from two ginko supplement brands. Thin-layer and column chromatography, as well as IR-Spectra and melting point tests were incorporated into the comparison. The same flavonoids were also identified from samples of dry and dead ginkgo leaf collections.

 

Tyson Gundersen                                                Chemistry

Christian Hagge

 

Comparison of Silica Gel Beads and Molecular Sieves in a Fischer Esterification Reaction

 

Molecular sieves and silica gel beads are common desiccants used in a chemistry laboratory. The purpose of this experiment was to determine which of these desiccants was more effective in removing excess water from the acid catalyzed Fischer esterification reaction between isopentyl alcohol and glacial acetic acid. Separate reactions were run using molecular sieves and silica gel beads respectively under a variety of temperature and time conditions. The reaction was optimized for time and similar results were observed for both dessicants.

 

Mathew Snow                                                      Chemistry

Brad Nielson

Logan Zemp

Heidi Dumais

Derek Osborne

Seong-Cheol Lee

Jared Clark

Jaron C. Hansen

 

Computational Study on Peroxy Radical Species and Peroxy Radical-Water Complexes Derived from 2-E Hexenal

 

The importance of peroxy-radical moieties upon atmospheric processes (including the formation of nitrogen oxides and tropospheric ozone) has been well established. Recent theoretical studies have shown that several small (methyl- and ethyl-size R-groups) organic peroxy radicals can be stabilized by complexation with water molecules, with binding energies between 2-5 kcal mol-1. The present investigation represents part of an effort to examine larger peroxy radical-water complexes and their contribution to atmospheric processes. The eight enantiomer pairs generated by the addition of OH and O2 radical to the double bond of 2-E hexenal are currently being evaluated using high level ab initio calculations. Calculated bond lengths, bond angles, partial charges, and vibrational frequencies are consistent with previous studies; these are indicative of molecular stabilization due to intramolecular hydrogen bonding and surprisingly strong CH-O interactions. Relatively large partial charges (-.28 to -.69) have also been observed on carbons 3 and 6 in the radicals. Results suggest that complexation with water may increase the stability of these larger peroxy radical species, and studies to determine if this is the case are under way.

 

 

 

Poster Session

Romney Foyers

8:00 am

 

Ben Rau                                                               Chemistry

Steve Williamson

 

Extraction of Gamma-oryzanol from Rice Bran Oil

 

Rice bran oil contains various nutritional components and is currently being researched for nutritional and pharmaceutical uses. One of the key active ingredients is a group of chemicals collectively referred to as gamma-oryzanol. These chemicals have proven nutritional value. The purpose of our experiment was to extract and identify the active ingredients in a rice bran health supplement. Acetone extraction and column chromatography were used to extract and isolate three components, as identified by thin layer chromatography. These three compounds were purified and their composition was explored through spectroscopic analysis.

 

Jesse Allen                                                            Computer Science and Engineering

 

Embedded Design Project - Visual Assistance Tools

 

Developing a system that will help visually impaired people to be able to read the US currency using a camera cell phone. The system will consist of software installed on a camera phone. The system will take a picture of a dollar bill and will tell the user the denomination of the bill with an audible voice.

 

Nicole Rencher                                                    Exercise and Sports Science

Gretchen Houston

 

Diet's Effect on Maximal Fat Use during Exercise

 

The purpose of this study is to examine factors related to changes in maximal use of fat during exercise. All subjects were untrained, college aged, males with moderate activity levels based on a physical activity rating questionnaire. Subjects consisted of a <13% body fat group (n=12) and a >20% body fat group (n=14). Preliminary testing was performed by using a graded exercise test (GXT) and indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat use and fitness (VO2 max). Their diets were recorded up to 3 days prior to testing and analyzed using ESHA. After testing, subjects were put on an 8 week training program. Post testing consisted of a subsequent, 3 day dietary analysis and GXT. Backward regression was used to determine significant factors for fat use pre and post training. Dietary changes were determined using a paired t-test. Backward regression determined factors influencing the intensity of exercise where maximal fat use occurred. In untrained subjects, total triglycerides, cholesterol, fat, calories, and VO2max all were significant factors (R2 = .536, p<0.01) for the exercise intensity in which maximal fat use occurs. After training, only VO2 max had the largest influence (R2 =.376, p=.02) on the intensity in which maximal fat use occurs. Many of the variables explaining fat use prior to training were diet and fitness related. However, after training, the dietary components were not as important. Further analysis was performed to determine whether subjects changed their dietary intake patterns. Paired T-tests indicated that total caloric intake did not change (p= .13), dietary fat intake did not change (p=.10), carbohydrate intake did not change (p=.17), total triglycerides did not change (p=.08), and total cholesterol did not change (p= .40) In untrained subjects dietary intake played a role in how they used fats. When training occurred, but similar dietary patterns continued, the role of diet on fat use patterns diminished. These results suggest that fitness levels play a larger role in determining fat use, than diet in trained individuals.

 

 

 

 

 

Poster Session

Romney Foyers

8:00 am

 

Makay Oakey                                                      Exercise and Sports Science

Chris Stevenson

Sarah Dana

Mckenzie Nelson

Jeff Clawson

Wyatt Checketts

Matt Dana

Caleb Baxter

Jeffrey Bushman

 

A Standardized Field Test for Exercise-Induced Asthma

 

The purpose of this study was to propose a standardized field test to assess the presence of Exercise-Induced Asthma. Each subject participated in a lab test and a field test. The lab test was similar to most standardized exercise challenge tests for Exercise-Induced Asthma. Prior to exercise, each subject's Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) was measured using spirometry. The subjects then exercised for about six minutes at 85% of his or her age-predicted max heart-rate was reached (220-age x .85). Following exercise FEV was measured again at 5, 10, and 15 minutes post-exercise. For the proposed field test, the "bag method", subjects were asked to follow almost the same procedure; however, FEV was measured using a clear plastic garbage bag and subjects ran on an indoor track rather than laboratory treadmill. Air was squeezed out of the bag, and then subjects expelled all the air in his or her lungs to fill it and the bag was pinched off. The air was pressed to the bottom of the bag and then a funnel was added to the top and water was poured in to measure the volume. Two bags were taken pre-exercise and at 5, 10, and 15 minute intervals post-exercise. Data were collected and compared. A fall in peak expiratory volume of more than 15% was used as the standard to identify the possible presence Exercise-Induced Asthma. The data was compared using a Standardized T-test, and results appear valid. No significant differences between the tests were measured (p≤.05). It appears that the field test proposed is a valid measurement of the presence of exercise-induced asthma.

 

Tyler Kelly                                                           Exercise and Sports Science               

Lance Peterson

 

The Effect of Training and Ventilatory Threshold on Maximal Fat Use during Exercise

 

The purpose of this study is to examine whether Ventilatory Threshold (VT) occurs at Maximal Fat Oxidation (MFO). Previous research indicated that fat use is impaired by the production of lactate. Therefore maximal fat use occurs just before a linear accumulation of lactate which is indirectly measured by VT. All subjects were untrained college aged males with moderate activity levels based on a physical activity rating questionnaire. Subjects consisted of a low fat control <13% body fat group (n=12), low fat trained<13% body fat group (n=12), high fat control >20% body fat group (n=12), high fat trained >20% body fat group (n=12). Graded exercise tests were performed along with several other tests before any training occurred to determine fat use and the subjects fitness level (VO2max). Eight weeks of training followed the initial tests, after which the same tests were performed as previous to provide post data. A paired T-Test was used to find if VT was correlated to MFO. After performing the analyses on the results of the research, it was determined that MFO occurred more frequently before VT than at the same time point. The results regarding VT occurring after MFO may occur for a number of reasons. In sedentary individuals, and individuals with 8 weeks of training, there is not a cause and effect relationship between lactate production and a decline in fat use.

 

 

 

Poster Session

Romney Foyers

8:00 am

 

Scott Conover                                                      Exercise and Sports Science

Paige Cummings

 

The Effects of Training on Maximum Fat Oxidation during Exercise

 

The purpose of this study was to determine if 8 weeks of training had an effect on maximal fat oxidation. All subjects were untrained college aged males with moderate activity levels based on a physical activity rating questionnaire. Subjects consisted of a <13% body fat group (n=12) and a >20% body fat group (n=12). These two groups were further subdivided into a control group and a training group. Preliminary testing was performed using a graded exercise test (GXT) and indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat use and fitness (VO2 max). After testing, subjects were put on an 8 week training program. A two way repeated ANOVA test was performed to verify the significance of training on maximum fat oxidation. Results from the ANOVA test showed that there was no significant impact due to 8 weeks of training on maximum fat oxidation with a p-value <.05. Results from the ANOVA test performed to verify if 8 weeks of training impacted maximum fat oxidation showed that there was no significance between the control group and the trained group. Therefore, training as an independent variable did not have a significant effect on maximal fat oxidation. These results suggest that other variables such as initial fitness levels (i.e. VO2max) play a larger role in determining fat use, than does 8 weeks of training. A review of literature supports the notion that extensive training will increase maximum fat oxidation levels by increasing VO2max. Short term training of 8 weeks or less doesn't have a significant impact on maximal fat oxidation.  

 

Tyson J. Forbush                                                            Geology

Andrew R. Smith

 

Mobile Metal Ionization: An Effective Gold Exploration Tool in Northern Nevada

 

Mobil Metal Ionization (MMI) is a controversial geochemical method used to locate precious and industrial metal deposits. The purpose of this on-going study is to determine the effectiveness of MMI as an exploration tool at GoldCorp=s Marigold mine in northern Nevada. This survey evaluated nearly twelve square miles of mine property. Sample analysis aided in the recognition of ore bodies and resulted in the identification of previously unknown faults and shear zones. This study has identified fifteen new drill targets in both previously explored and unexplored areas testing anomalies with reverse circulation drilling. Well logs from all tested drill targets show thick units of minable-grade ore with Au concentrations up to two ounces per ton. It is our conclusion that MMI is both a viable and cost effective exploration tool for the mining industry.

 

Ryan Taylor                                                        Geology

 

Effect of Septic Systems and Agricultural Development on a Primarily Spring-fed Watershed

 

The Buffalo river watershed of Island Park, Idaho is almost entirely spring-fed system. To determine the influence of the logging, agricultural and cabin development influence upon the water quality of the stream and its suitability for fish wildlife; water quality testing was performed throughout the season to gain an understanding of the season influence of snow melt and run-off upon the concentration of nutrients and general water quality of the stream. Qualities tested included temperature, turbidity, pH, total conductivity, alkalinity, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, cations and anions. Periodic cultures for Coliform bacteria were conducted as available.

 

 

 

Poster Session

Romney Foyers

8:00 am

 

Won Song                                                            Mathematics

 

A Generalized Approach to Estimate Parameters Using Anderson's Likelihood Ratio Test

 

Effective tools exist for estimating parameters when the distribution can be specified. However, in some cases it is not possible to explicitly derive the distribution. Traditional methods cannot be used to estimate these model parameters. A new approach for parameter estimation is evaluated which can be used for any parametric model. T. Anderson introduced a likelihood ratio test (LRT) which values are asymptotically distributed as a chi-square random variable. The Anderson LRT statistic quantifies how well data match a given mean vector and covariance matrix. Lower test values imply a better fit of the data to specified parameters. We consider a lattice in the parameter space, simulate data at each point on the lattice, and use Anderson's likelihood ratio test to assess which points are most plausible. A refinement of the lattice is produced in the neighborhood of the lowest Anderson LRT values. The same process is repeated until a near-optimal set of parameters is obtained.

 

London Jenks                                                      Physics

 

What Not To Do with Your Mother's Microwave

 

Looking for an exciting SPS outreach program? This outreach program utilized a series of demonstrations that include a discussion of a microwave's basic function and its ordinarily unexplored applications as well as demonstrations presenting principles of thermodynamics and pressure. These demonstrations are aimed at physics students, non-physics majors, secondary and elementary students and children of all ages. Used to encourage physics majors to join the Society of Physics Students and encourage non-physics majors to recognize physics in their everyday lives. This program helped to promote the study of science amongst elementary and secondary students.

 

Rebecca Bodily                                                    Physics

 

X-rays from Scotch Tape!

 

X-rays are used all the time to tell whether a bone is broken or something else is wrong with the body, but the equipment is bulky and expensive.  What would happen if it didn't have to be that way?  What if a portable, small, very inexpensive machine was built so if you thought you had a broken finger, you could find out in the privacy of your own home?  We read in an article of a study showing that by pulling tape off the roll in a vacuum, it would not only emit visible light (similar to chewing Wintergreen Lifesavers in a dark room), but would also emit x-rays and radio waves, so we decided to try it out for ourselves!

 

Andrew Briggs                                                    Psychology

 

An Observational Study on the Use of Cialdini's Weapons of Influence in Jewelry Sales

 

Studies of sales techniques have shown that there are many persuasive tactics used by salespeople to influence a customer in a sales situation. By observing salespeople and customers in real sales situations, this study explored the frequency of the use of Cialdini's weapons of influence in retail jewelry sales. Results indicated that the most frequently used weapons of influence are liking and reciprocation. The limited number of observations and the observer effect were two limitations of the study.

 

 

 

 

 

Poster Session

Romney Foyers

8:00 am

 

Gordon Granger                                                 Psychology

Mark Moody

 

A Quantitative Study Examining the Correlation of Credit Hours and Memory Retention

 

Students spend a substantial amount of time studying their course material throughout the semester, but what happens to that information when the semester is over? The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether there is a correlation between credit hours and the retention of class room information. 80 students from a Psychology 111 class were sampled. A post-test was administered after a delay period of five weeks.

 

 

 

 

 

Oral Session

Social Science, Agribusiness, Exercise & Sports Science, and Mathematics

Romney 172

10:00 am

 

Galen E. Woodward                                           Agribusiness, Plant and Animal Sciences

Jared D. Williams

Blake D. Willis

Bryan G. Hopkins

 

Composting Effects in Low Organic Matter Soils of Highly Cultivated Areas

 

Reduced crop yields and potato tuber quality are suggested to be related to intensive cultivation in a potato/grain rotation system in southeast Idaho which results in low soil organic matter and subsequently decreases soil health. Application of soil amendments (e.g., compost and manure) can improve yield potential, increase soil fertility and organic matter content. A continued study has proposed that the effects of soil amendments benefit the levels organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), yield, and tuber quality. A four year rotation (winter wheat, winter wheat, alfalfa, and potatoes) with compost added before planting was compared to the same rotation without a soil amendment. The compost was steer feedlot manure (11.2 g kg-1 N and 7.0 g kg -1 P) and was applied before planting at the rate of 6.7 Mg ha-1 for wheat and alfalfa and at 11.2 Mg ha-1 for potatoes. Research plots were located on a Blackfoot silt loam and a Pocatello variant silt loam near Rexburg, Idaho. Bulk density and soil fertility samples were taken in the spring and after harvest and compared to native soils from the original year which included undisturbed soils from the same soil type as the research plots. Native soils had a bulk density of 1.14 g/cm3 which was lower than the plot bulk density of 1.51 g/cm3. For the research plot soils, CEC ranged from 12 to 15 cmolc kg-1 and yields for 2007 were 4.36 Mg ha-1 for wheat, 6.71 Mg ha-1 and 22.6 Mg ha-1 for potatoes. No statistical differences were observed between crop yield and quality for the compost and the control treatments. Soil tests showed that SOM in the research plots 19.3g kg-1 and 43.3g kg-1 for the native soils. The plots had lower fertility levels (e.g., total N and nitrate) than the native soils with the exception of phosphorus levels which were 73 kg ha-1 for native soils and 88 kg ha-1 for plot soils. The study is currently in second year of 12 years, and it is expected that composting will increasing soil carbon levels and provide nutrients to the plant which will reduce the amount of fertilizers need to obtain optimal crop yields and quality.

 

10:15 am

 

John Nightingale                                                 Exercise and Sports Science

Ryan Porter                                

Emily Herb

Charles Pence     

 

Glucose Uptake after Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Exercise with the Same Amount of Work

 

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference in glucose uptake in the post exercise time frame between high-intensity intermittent cycling lasting 25-35 minutes and low endurance cycling lasting approximately 30 minutes. A total of 19 college aged men participated in a high intensity sprint trial and an endurance trial on separate days. After each trial, the subjects drank a carbohydrate solution, and we monitored their glucose until it returned to baseline. The resulting p-value was 0.006, which shows that there is a statistical difference between the two trials. Because the area under the curve was significantly smaller in the high intensity intermittent trial, we can conclude that the body restores glucose more efficiently after high intensity intermittent type exercise vs. low intensity exercise of equal work.

 

 

 

 

 

Oral Session

Social Science, Agribusiness, Exercise & Sports Science, and Mathematics

Romney 172

10:30 am

 

Logan Owen                                                        Mathematics

 

Offensive Efficiency among NBA Players

 

Creating a fair, balanced, and unbiased system for ranking basketball players from all eras is a difficult task. This project attempts to discover such a system without letting the opinion of the author interfere. Some of the obstacles include the addition of the three-point line in 1979 and the differing pace of the game from season to season. These obstacles were overcome by rating players on a per-possession, rather than per-game, basis and by adjusting the numbers for seasons before the institution of the three-point field goal. All historical team statistical data was included, and a linear regression model was constructed relating the common statistical categories to overall team success, measured by winning percentage. The resulting formula was then used to rate the players in each season. Each player's career ratings were then compiled, and all players in history with at least 20,000 career possessions were ranked from highest to lowest. The results are more applicable as a rating of an individual's offensive efficiency than as a measure of his overall efficiency.

 

10:45 am

 

Ashley Howey                                                      Political Science

 

Child Soldiers in Africa

 

Hundreds of thousands of children now play an active role in armed conflicts throughout the world. The issue of child soldiering in Africa is troubling because of its long-term impacts on the development of societies and because of its moral implications. Analysis of the issue of child soldiers in Africa occurs in two parts: child soldiering and economic support by Western countries. The first issue, child soldiering, includes an analysis of the historical use of children as soldiers, the changing face of war, the how, what and why of modern child soldiers, and an exploration of the impact this issue has on the international community. Second, an examination of the economic support of child soldiers in Africa from Western countries is offered. This is analyzed directly and indirectly. Directly, support from Western nations is seen with historical examples from Angola, Mozambique, and Sierra Leone. Finally, indirect Western support of the international arms trade and the diamond industry are examined in light of child soldering. This research concludes that Western states economically support the creation and continued use of child soldiers in Africa, and that the West must make substantial changes regarding their support of this issue if it is ever to change.

 

 

 

Oral Session

Social Science, Agribusiness, Exercise & Sports Science, and Mathematics

Romney 172

11:00 am

 

Moriah Siens                                                        Psychology

 

Parental Divorce Effects on Adult Children Relationships

 

The purpose of this research study was to analyze the influence of divorce on the adult relationships of those children involved. A survey was generated and dispersed to all married students attending Brigham Young University-Idaho via email. The questionnaire contained 7 questions in relation to the parents' marriage and the students' own marriage. Participants of this research study were selected according to their age, marital status, and marital status of their parents. Upon the collection of surveys the number of participants were determined based on the response rate. The participants included 22 married individuals from divorced homes (16 women, 6 men) and 119 individuals from intact homes (67 females, 52 males). Descriptive statistics were drawn from the data. Due to the awareness of the impact of parental conflict on the child's adult relationships, participants were able to participate in an additional qualitative study. This helped to understand the level of conflict for both married and divorced families. Those who were interested in this portion of the study were selected at random and given the time and place where the interviews would commence. The data collected from the interviews was analyzed through qualitative measures. This was further compared to the quantitative data from the survey.

 

11:15 am

 

Joseph Horner                                                     Psychology

Morgan Maxwell

 

Differences in Stress Levels between Married and Unmarried Undergraduates at a Religious Institution

 

Stress is part of the life of an undergraduate. The difference in stress levels between married and unmarried undergraduates has been studied with conflicting results. This project looked at the stress levels of 169 married and 163 unmarried undergraduates at a religious university. The General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) was used to measure stress. No differences were found between married and unmarried students. Possible reasons for results are the homogeneous nature of the population and marital status not being a key factor in stress levels of undergraduates. Further research is suggested to validate results in other religious undergraduate populations along with more diverse subjects.

 

11:30 am

 

Andrew Burger                                                   Sociology

 

Alienation among Hispanics: A Multiracial Comparison

 

Hispanics, now considered the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority group in the United States today, face many limitations which impede their assimilation into the American society. These impediments can lead to alienation, where the individual or group will fail to, to perceive a positive interdependence between themselves and social relationships. This research paper will be analyzing data taken from the 2006 General Social Survey (GSS) to compare of alienation between Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics. Using previously accepted measures of anomie, the researcher will create a hybrid scale using the questions given in the 2006 GSS to effectively measure alienation among the respondents. Then the results will be analyzed to ascertain if Hispanics suffer more alienation than do Whites or Blacks.

 

 

Oral Session

Physics & Engineering

Romney 127

10:00 am

 

James Cheney                                                      Mechanical Engineering

 

Murphy's Steam Engine

 

A new approach to simplifying the steam engine with applications in air compression. I have developed on my free time a steam engine/air compressor that needs 50% fewer moving parts than many comparable devices.

 

10:15 am

 

 

Bryan J. Lewis                                                    Mechanical Engineering

 

Nozzle Degradation Due to Gas Injection Vectoring

A common method for altering the course of a solid rocket motor is injecting an inert gas into the exhaust flow. The presence of this gas in the supersonic flow of the exhaust causes the mean thrust vector to deviate, thus altering the course of the rocket. Injecting the gas is achieved through gas injection ports located slightly aft of the nozzle throat. In observing the post firing condition of several rocket nozzles, a localized degradation of the nozzle wall was detected downstream from the gas injection port used during the firing. Preliminary analysis was unable to determine the cause of this localized degradation. The purpose of this research was to develop and validate, were possible, a theory for the cause of this degradation through the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis.

 

10:30 am

 

Wayne B. Christenson                                        Physics

 

Tungsten STM Tip Production Methods

 

Two methods for fabricating ultra sharp tungsten tips for STM are compared. The lamella drop-off technique provides the sharpest tips. Standard drop off techniques provide for greater symmetry and shorter lengths. Field Emission measurements are compared with theory established by the Fowler-Nordheim equation. These field emission measurements provide a rough estimate of how good a tip will be.

 

10:45 am

 

Bryan J. Lewis                                                    Mechanical Engineering

 

Rapid Prototyping: An Economic Approach

Rapid Prototyping is a modeling process used in product design and fabrication. This process allows for Computer Aided Drafting(CAD) to be used to virtually create the product, and then build the product by depositing layer upon layer of material to form the designed shape. This process can be used to build products with simple and complex geometries and is often more versatile then traditional manufacturing methods. There are a variety of prototyping technologies used; the most common being Stereolithography, Selective Laser Sintering, Fused Deposition Modeling, Electron Beam Melting. With high demand for fast and reliable production of mechanical parts, there is a great need for instantaneous and economical production of prototypes that customers and designers can touch and feel before large expenses are made in manufacturing. The goal of this research paper is to see if rapid prototyping is the solution to that need. Cost, product effectiveness, reliability, and types of material and methods will be considered in this research.

 

 

Oral Session

Physics & Engineering

Romney 127

11:00 am

 

Kerri Blum                                                          Physics

 

Reasoning and Conceptual Understanding in Introductory Physics

 

The purpose of this study was to map academic gains for students enrolled in introductory physics courses over the course of a semester. We wished to determine whether or not a correlation could be found between how well a student does in a course and such things as their cognitive reasoning and conceptual understanding, ethnicity, gender, year in school, and motivation.

 

11:15 am

 

London Jenks                                                      Physics

 

Lessons in Learning: The Introductory Physics Interactivity Survey (IPIS)

 

Discusses the developed of the Introductory Physics Interactivity Survey (IPIS) at BYU-Idaho. Presents current work to improve the scoring of the survey and a review of Interactive-engagement research in Introductory Physics courses. Includes common responses from professors and what we hope to accomplish in the future. 

 

11:30 am

 

Melissa Bateman                                                 Physics

 

Enhancing RISE

 

Research in Science Education has been revolutionizing science education. The change in research from how students learn to how teachers teach has also been making big strides in science education. Recent Research has been revealing a connection between epistemological beliefs, reasoning ability and conceptual understanding. This project has been taking data collected from Fall Semester 2008 and also data we have collected this Winter Semester 2009 "to supplement existing data in strengthening the statistical value of the sample size." We've administered four specific tests to selected introductory physics courses. These tests include: the Epistemological Beliefs Assessment for Physical Science, the Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, The Force Concept Inventory, and the Conceptual Survey in Electricity and Magnetism. From using this data we have been comparing test results to diagnostics to answer questions such as: Does gender affect how we learn physics? Does past physics experience affect how we learn physics? Does past math experience affect how we learn physics? And how do math background successes compare to physics background successes? As we answer these questions, we will be better prepared in the Physics classroom.

 

11:45 am

 

Allison Shaffer                                                    Physics

 

Student Understanding and Enjoyment in Introductory Physics

Recent research in physics education shows that a student's perception of enjoyment has a large influence on what they are capable of understanding. When they have a favorable attitude to what and how they can learn new concepts they generally also have strong reasoning ability and conceptual understanding. Research was conducted through the administration of three diagnostic tests (EBAPS, Lawson, CSEM/FCI).This has been the big focus this semester, in addition to data from previous semesters. 

 

 

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