- The Caliphate
begins and continues until 1258--some say, 1924--(the Caliphate was not
consciously, but its authority and definition emerged over time.
Though the Caliphate ended in 1258, claimants continue until today,
allowing re-establishment of the Caliphate to inspire some
funamentalists in the modern world with the possible return to the
"Golden Age" of Islam.)
First Caliphs (the Rashidoun or "Rightly Guided Ones")
- Abu Bakr
- Umar (634-644)
- Uthman (644-656)
- Ali (656-661)
Three Political Factions Arose
During the Rashidoun
During the first Caliphs (the Rashidoun)
factions developed in areas ruled by Muslims.
- First Faction.
Considered followers of Muhammad but were led by members of the less
important families in Mecca. Abu Bakr and Uman had been members
of this group, and Ali (as the husband of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah)
was looked on as the leader. Their strength was located in Egypt
- Second Faction. Leaders of
this faction were members of the Umayyad family and others from the
Quraish (from Mecca). Uthman
was an Umayyad. Their strength
was located in Syria.
- Third Faction.
This faction was composed of Arab soldiers who had joined Muslims just
before or after Muhammad's death. They outnumbered the other two
groups, but were unorganized and their leaders did not have the
prestige of the Quraish. Yet, they were mainly responsible for
the expanse of Islam.
- Muawiyah (661-680) He induced
leaders of the empire to recognize his son Yazid as his
successor. This made the position of caliph a hereditary
one. Capital was Damascus, Syria.
- Yazid (680-683) Full scale
civil war. Shi'a movement against Umayyads.
- Abbasid caliphs were Arabs who claimed descendency from
Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, on e of the youngest uncles of
- Shifted capital to Bagdad.
- Won Shi'tes over by temoparily converting to Shia Islam.
- Non-Arab Muslims -- mawali -- were considered equal
class with Arabs.
The Crusades (1099-1302)
- Nine different
Crusades beginning 1095 and continuing until 1272.
- Crusaders driven out
of Levant in 1302.
Ayyubid Dynasty (1174-1250)
- Salah al-Din.
- Retakes Jeusalme from
- Controlled Egypt and
defeated the Mongols.
- Drove out the
Crusaders from Levant in 1291 and 1302 bringing the Crusade period to
The Ottoman Empire (1299-1922)