Study Exam Unit 2
The period of the zygote lasts about __________, beginning with
a. 3 months;
b. 2 weeks; implantation
c. 3 months;
d. 2 weeks;
By the end of the period of the embryo, the embryo does NOT
move strongly enough to be felt by the mother.
respond to touch.
c. have arms, legs,
fingers, and toes.
d. have a working
The umbilical cord grows to a length of
a. 1 to 3 inches
b. 5 to 7 inches
c. 10 to 12 inches
d. 1 to 3 feet
The period of the fetus is primarily a time when
implantation in the uterus occurs.
basic structures are laid down.
major organs first begin to function.
growth and finishing take place.
The age of viability refers to the point at which
a. rapid fetal growth
b. the heart begins to
pump blood around the fetus's circulatory system.
c. the age at which the
fetus can first survive if born early.
d. the fetus's lungs
begin to expand and contract in a rehearsal of breathing movements.
The harm done by teratogens depends on each of the following factors
a. labor and delivery
b. age of the prenatal
Newborn babies who have a particularly shrill, piercing cry are often
born to mothers who took ______ during pregnancy.
The most well-known effect of smoking during the prenatal period is
c. low birth weight.
In addition to mental retardation, prenatal exposure to mercury has been
abnormalities of the face, chest, and skeleton.
irritability, hyperactivity, and increased muscle tone.
lethargy, sleepiness, and difficulty staying awake.
abnormal speech and difficulty chewing or swallowing.
toxoplasmosis parasite can be transmitted through the feces of infected
weighed nine pounds when she was born. Research shows that she is at increased
risk of __________ in adulthood.
c. heart disease
emotional stress during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of each of
the following EXCEPT
neural tube defects.
newborn respiratory illness.
c. low birth weight.
d. cleft palate.
serious illness of pregnancy in which the mother's blood pressure increases
sharply and her face, hands, and feet swell is called
d. Rh blood
expulsion of the placenta takes place during the ______ stage of labor.
d. This does not happen
during labor, but after labor is over.
average newborn baby weighs __________ and is __________ inches long.
a. 4 1/2 pounds; 15
b. 7 1/2 pounds; 20
c. 9 pounds; 22
d. 12 to 13 pounds; 24
Apgar Scale rates characteristics of a newborn, including the baby's
a. heart rate, color,
and muscle tone.
length and weight.
vision, hearing, and sense of touch.
reflexes, state changes, and responsiveness to physical and social
of the following mothers should have their baby in a hospital rather than at
Elizabeth, a healthy 25-year-old whose baby is in a breech position
Michelle, a 40-year-old, assisted by a well-trained midwife
Debra, a 19-year-old, with a family history of sickle cell anemia
Alexandra, a 30-year-old who had a previous miscarriage
healthy pregnancies, fetal monitoring
reduces the rate of infant death.
b. is necessary to
detect hidden problems with the baby.
c. does not reduce the
rate of infant brain damage.
reduces the likelihood of cesarean delivery.
country has the highest rate of cesarean delivery in the world?
d. the United States
most common reason for a cesarean delivery is because the
a. baby is in breech
position and cannot be turned to a head-down position.
mother's labor has failed to progress.
mother has had a previous cesarean delivery.
infant is too large to fit through the mother's birth canal.
Research on interventions for very low-birth-weight infants born into
poverty shows that
intervention is needed into the school years.
intensive intervention is needed only for the first year.
c. even comprehensive
intervention does not allow these infants to catch up to agemates in
intelligence by age 3.
d. just a few sessions
of coaching in recognizing and responding to the baby's needs leads to steady
gain in mental test scores.
of the following has been used successfully in countries that outrank the United
States in infant survival EXCEPT
government-funded prenatal care.
national paid maternity leave.
specially trained maternity helpers.
federally funded child care.
of the following newborn reflexes is most likely NO LONGER needed for healthy
a. last throughout the
disappear by six months.
disappear by two or three years.
disappear by puberty.
__________ is the most common cause of crying in newborn infants.
a. A soiled diaper
of the following senses is LEAST developed at birth?
"Recovery curves" on Brazelton's Neonatal Behavioral Assessment
Scale (NBAS) can be used to predict
whether a parent has adequate parenting skills.
b. the child's
intelligence during the preschool years.
when an infant is going to need special medical intervention.
stress of adapting to parenthood
a. is generally more
difficult for men than it is for women.
b. goes on for at least
the first three or four years.
c. can be managed when
parents support each other.
d. is not as great as
most people believe it to be.
babies are described by their parents as unusually __________ on the day before
a growth spurt.
lethargic and withdrawn
anxious and irregular
irritable and hungry
active and fussy
cephalocaudal trend in development means that
a. the extremities
develop before the central regions.
b. the head region
develops before the foot region.
males develop more rapidly than females.
females develop more rapidly than males.
development proceeds from the center of the body outward it is known as the
________ are responsible for __________, the coating of neural fibers
with a fatty sheath that improves the efficiency of message transfer.
a. Glial cells; synaptic
c. Glial cells;
Synapses; synaptic pruning
ability of another part of the brain to take over the functions of a damaged
region is known as
the two hemispheres __________, the cortex __________.
lateralize; loses unneeded synapses
myelinize; is no longer highly plastic
lateralize; is no longer highly plastic
myelinize; loses unneeded synapses
of the following is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome EXCEPT
placing infants to sleep on their backs.
prenatal abuse of drugs.
wrapping babies very warmly in clothing and blankets.
cigarette smoking during and after pregnancy.
Beginning to sleep through the night in infancy is most strongly related
to which of the following factors?
a. brain maturation
c. the rate of food
Research shows that infant-parent "cosleeping"
hinders babies' ability to fall asleep on their own.
b. is common only in
interferes with infants' ability to sleep through the night.
d. often occurs in
cultures in which infant sleep problems are uncommon.
important benefit of breast-feeding, especially in nonindustrialized areas of
the world, is that it
helps babies go a longer time between feedings.
reduces the risk of future pregnancy complications.
greatly improves the psychological health of the baby.
helps increase the spacing in age between siblings.
become obese adults.
b. are bottle-fed rather
c. are less active than
d. thin out during
toddlerhood and the preschool years.
longitudinal study of marasmic children revealed that
a. an improved diet
leads to some catch-up growth in height, but little improvement in head size.
marasmus strikes only in developing countries.
c. once marasmic
children are put on an improved diet, they soon catch up to agemates in terms of
these children show no organic cause for their failure to grow.
who are given sufficient nourishment and have no physical symptoms except that
they do not grow as expected are diagnosed with
nonorganic failure to thrive.
neutral stimulus that is repeatedly associated with another stimulus that
reliably elicits a reflexive response and therefore begins to elicit a response
of its own is called a(n) __________ stimulus.
outcome or consequence that increases the probability that the behavior that
caused it will be repeated is called a(n)
Habituation is an important technique for those who study newborns,
because it allows them to tell that an infant can
recognize that a stimulus is familiar.
detect a change in a stimulus.
recall a stimulus that is not present.
control a powerful reflex response.
of the following is NOT supported by research on newborn imitation?
Through imitation, adults can get babies to express desirable behavior.
Newborn imitation reflects an automatic response to particular stimuli.
Through imitation, infants notice similarities between their own actions
and those of others.
d. Using imitation, newborns begin to get to know people by sharing behavioral states with them.
of these is the best example of a gross motor skill?
According to a dynamic systems account of motor skills, each new skill is
dependent on each of the following factors EXCEPT
a. the goal the child
has in mind.
autonomic nervous system development.
environmental supports for the skill.
movement possibilities of the body.
ulnar grasp is a motor skill in which a baby
a. picks up small
objects between fingers and thumbs.
takes broad, uncoordinated swings at objects.
c. turns the head toward
an object and puts it in his or her mouth.
holds an object by folding the fingers against the palm.
ability to grasp an object develops in the following sequence of skills:
a. ulnar grasp,
prereaching, pincer grasp.
prereaching, ulnar grasp, pincer grasp.
pincer grasp, ulnar grasp, prereaching.
prereaching, pincer grasp, ulnar grasp.
visual cliff was developed by Gibson and Walk to study the development of
of these experiences helps a baby most in developing an understanding of the
being carried everywhere by the mother
independent movement, such as crawling
having colorful moving objects to look at
educational television, such as Sesame Street
of the following abilities has the average 3-month-old NOT yet developed?
a. the ability to
recognize his or her mother's face in a photograph
b. a preference for a
facial pattern over a pattern with scrambled facial features
c. the ability to treat
positive faces (happy and surprised) as different from negative ones (sad and
d. the ability to tell
the differences between the photos of two strangers, even when the faces are
of the following interventions helps infants with severe visual impairments to
compensate for visual loss EXCEPT
providing a context for rich language stimulation.
providing corrective lenses.
providing stimulation that combines sound and touch.
encouraging manipulative play with objects that make sounds.
Research suggests that intermodal perception
a. is present at birth.
b. is the direct result
of intermodal experience with the environment.
appears during the first month of life.
emerges as the result of independent locomotion.
According to differentiation theory, infants constantly look for ways
a. to construct
categories of objects and events in the environment.
b. to seek out changing
relationships between perceptual features in the environment.
c. in which the
environment affords opportunities for action.
d. to make sense of
variant features in the environment.
preschooler who sees an airplane for the first time and calls it a bird is most
likely __________ the airplane into her bird scheme.
tendency to rearrange and integrate schemes, apart from direct contact with the
the first substage of the sensorimotor period,
infants apply reflexive behaviors rather indiscriminately.
babies do not yet form schemes.
behaviors are aimed at producing novel effects in the environment.
babies begin to vary their behaviors in response to environmental
sensorimotor Substage 6 is different from the other substages because infants
who have reached it become able to
create mental representations of absent objects and past events.
b. act deliberately to
make interesting experiences happen again.
search for hidden objects in different places until they find them.
d. use language to
express their experiences or their demands.
of the following capacities does NOT emerge during Substage 6 of the
important research-based criticism of Piaget's theory of development during the
sensorimotor stage is that
cognitive development is gradual and continuous.
many sensorimotor capacities emerge much later than Piaget expected.
infants and toddlers progress through more stages than those
conceptualized by Piaget.
many schemes in infancy are constructed through acting directly on the
the information-processing system, long-term memory
stores information permanently.
b. is limited in
c. is the conscious part
of our mental system.
d. is the central
processing resource pool.
Habituation-dishabituation research shows that young infants are capable
contrast to Piaget's theory, an information-processing account of development
Compared with Piaget's theory, the information-processing approach to
development has more difficulty with
breaking down children's thoughts into precise procedures.
reducing changes in thoughts into manageable proportions.
counting the number of stages children's thoughts go through.
integrating information into a broad comprehensive theory.
Research shows that parents can facilitate their children's
autobiographical recall by using all of the following strategies EXCEPT
repeatedly asking the same short-answer questions.
adding information to their children's statements.
volunteering their own recollections of events.
asking many varied questions.
research shows that at 12 months,
a. most episodes of
make-believe play occur when children are playing alone.
almost all make-believe play episodes are initiated by caregivers.
make-believe play occurs more often in child-child interactions than in
toddlers initiate almost all play episodes with caregivers.
a. are good predictors
of IQ test scores during childhood.
b. are helpful for
assessing the health and well-being of newborns.
show good long-term prediction of intelligence for samples of normal
babies, but not for very low-scoring babies.
d. do not tap the same
dimensions of intelligence measured at older ages.
researchers believe that the habituation-dishabituation response during infancy
is effective at predicting later IQ because it
assesses an important sensorimotor milestone.
measures a higher-order cognitive skill.
reveals infants' ability to process complex stimuli.
d. taps quickness of
thinking, a characteristic of bright individuals.
with those of other Western countries, the child care services in the United
a. not as important, as
fewer American mothers work.
b. not well regulated
and are often of very poor quality.
better overall, as more American mothers work.
d. more focused on
improving cognitive skills.
According to the nativist perspective, the early and rapid development of
language in humans is due primarily to
parents stressing the importance of communication.
b. an innate system that
contains a set of rules common to all languages.
children's abilities to imitate other people.
parents simplifying their speech to children.
Compared with other perspectives on language development, the
interactionist perspective puts much more emphasis on a child's
innate capacity to learn language.
learning experiences in the environment.
desire to communicate with people.
growing control over the lips and tongue.
Research suggests that __________ between mothers and their babies during
play fosters language development.
c. fast mapping
d. joint attention
such as pat-a-cake and peekaboo
hinder the transition from preverbal to verbal communication.
facilitate children's understanding of illocutionary intent.
c. help children attain
conversational strategies such as turnabout and shading.
foster infants' understanding of the turn-taking pattern of human
early vocabulary error in which a word is applied to a wider collection of
objects or events than is appropriate is called a(n)
c. A-B language error.
Children's two-word utterances that leave out smaller and less important
words are called
a. the A-B language
the dinner table, Dora shouts, "No peas!" when her mother tries to
spoon some peas onto her plate. Dora's sentence is an example of
a. a protodeclarative.
which of the following cases should the parents be concerned about their child's
a. A 6-month-old infant
who has not yet begun to coo.
b. A 12-month-old who
has not yet said her first recognizable word.
c. A 20-month-old who
has a vocabulary of 200 words.
d. A 24-month-old who
has not yet combined two words.
most effective child-directed speech
creates a zone of proximal development.
fosters the development of children's autobiographic memory.
promotes metalinguistic awareness.
engages children in referential communication.
Compared to deaf children of deaf parents, deaf children of hearing
parents tend to be delayed in language progress and in complex make-believe
play. Researchers attribute this to differences in
b. early parent-child
c. the ability of
parents to learn sign language.
According to Erikson, what determines whether an infant will achieve a
positive outcome to the first crisis of psychosocial development?
a. the amount of oral
stimulation that is provided
b. the quality of the
c. the amount of food
given to the infant
whether the child is breast-fed or bottle-fed
According to Erikson's theory, a mother who promptly and sensitively
relieves her infant's discomfort is fostering her baby's sense of
__________ is evoked by the human face and first appears between
__________ of age.
a. The social smile; 6
and 10 weeks
Laughter; 6 and 10 weeks
c. The social smile; 2
and 3 months
Laughter; 2 and 3 months
cognitive ability is most directly associated with an increase in anger between
8 and 12 months?
a. the ability to
remember how people treated you before
b. the ability to plan
more effective reactions to events
c. the ability to figure
out who or what caused frustrations
d. the ability to pay
more attention to one's unhappiness
Amanda's first daughter was born, she became anxious and weepy, overwhelmed by
her daughter's needs, and angry that she no longer had control over her own
schedule. Amanda has a form of depression called
referencing is important to children's development because it allows parents to
show children they care about their feelings.
reward children for improving their behavior.
teach children how to react to novel events.
understand their children's emotional responses.
emotions differ from basic emotions in that self-conscious emotions
a. help the child get
around more successfully in the world.
influence the child's individual thoughts and feelings.
c. are instinctive,
genetically determined, and present at birth.
require socialization experiences in order to develop.
of the following is NOT an example of self-regulation?
counting to 10 before responding when angry
deciding not to watch a scary horror movie
laughing at a funny joke
drinking a cup of coffee to wake up in the morning
the end of the first year, infants become better able to regulate their emotions
because they become able to
express their feelings more accurately in words.
move about to approach or avoid situations.
understand others' emotions.
d. think about how
others would feel in the same situation.
the Thomas and Chess model for classifying children's temperaments, the most
frequently observed category was the ______ child.
percentage of babies cannot be classified easily into the temperament categories
of easy, difficult, or slow-to-warm-up?
a. 35 percent
b. 10 percent
c. 85 percent
d. 60 percent
Max is easily upset by novelty. According to research by Kagan, Max is likely to
develop low self-esteem by early childhood.
higher-than-average intelligence in middle childhood.
develop an insecure attachment to his mother by the second year.
become a fearful, inhibited preschooler.
parents believe that their first-born baby is easy, they are more likely to
describe their second-born child as
about as easy as the first.
b. even easier than the
c. a difficult infant.
There is no way to predict.
effective match between child-rearing practices and a child's temperament that
leads to favorable adjustment is known as
a. the caregiving
goodness of fit.
ethological theory, attachment results from
a. a secondary drive for
affection and love.
innate behaviors that trigger parental care.
c. the operant
conditioning of behaviors.
d. a reduction in
anxiety, leading to trust.
According to Bowlby, in the __________ phase, infants begin to use
familiar caregivers as a secure base from which to explore.
Bowlby's ethological view of attachment, children use their experiences during
the first 2 years to form a(n)
sense of self and the full range of self-conscious emotions.
internal working model of what close relationships are like.
system for manipulating the behaviors of their caregivers.
basis for their continued fine and gross motor control.
the Strange Situation, if a baby remains close to his mother before a separation
and displays angry behavior when she returns, he would be classified as
Researchers have studied the children of many societies to determine
their reactions to the Strange Situation. In all societies studied to date, the
most common response is
attachment pattern is especially high among maltreated infants?
who show objectivity and balance in discussing their childhoods, even if they
were negative, tend to have infants who can be characterized by which of the
following attachment patterns?
Research on the Aka of Central Africa reveals that the strong
father-infant relationship is due in great part to
a. the strong division
of male and female duties in the tribe.
b. the lack of respect
for women within the tribe.
c. the lack of respect
for men within the tribe.
d. an exceptionally warm
and gratifying marital relationship.
sibling relationships can best be characterized as showing
strong resentment and competition for parents' attention.
loving and caring of both children equally for the other.
c. few strong emotions,
as siblings are not very important.
d. a rich combination of
emotions, positive and negative.
Research on the long-term consequences of attachment suggests that
__________ largely determines whether attachment security is linked to later
sensitive caregiving during the first year of life
affectional ties outside the family
continuity of caregiving
d. the number of
children in the family
Research on early child care suggests that each of the following may
contribute to a higher rate of insecure attachment among infants of employed
a. more than one
insensitive caregiving at home and in child care.
c. full-time employment.
d. long hours in child
capacity to resist the momentary impulse to engage in a socially disapproved
behavior is known as
18 months, the beginnings of self-control first appear in the form of