Study Exam Unit 6


1.  The fastest growing segment of senior citizens is the

          a.   75-to-85 group.

          b.   85-and-older group.

          c.   65-to-75 group.

          d.        centenarians.


2.       The living situation for most Americans who are age 65 or older is

          a.   living at home, with assistance from someone else.

          b.   living independently at home.

          c.   living in a nursing home.

          d.   living in special senior citizen housing.


3.       Which of these factors is most consistently related to continuing to live a healthy and active life after age 100?

          a.        avoiding serious illness during childhood

          b.   a timid, retiring personality style

          c.        never marrying, or a short marriage

          d.        lifelong physical activity past age 100


4.       All of the following are risk factors associated with cataracts EXCEPT

          a.   sun exposure.

          b.        diabetes.

          c.   age.

          d.        gender.


5.              Compared with vision loss in elderly people, hearing loss has a larger effect on a person's

          a.        safety and enjoyment of life.

          b.        ability to live independently.

          c.   self-esteem.

          d.        employment.


6.       Which of these sensory deficits of old age can have the most immediately life-threatening effects?

          a.   taste

          b.        smell

          c.        vision

          d.        touch


7.       A reduction in the sense of touch affects primarily what portion of the body?

          a.   the face

          b.   the arms

          c.   the fingertips

          d.   the feet

8.       The function of _____ is to attack antigens in the body.

          a.        amyloid plaques

          b.        neurofibers

          c.   red blood cells

          d.   T cells


9.       _____ can predict survival over the next 2 years in very old people.

          a.        Measures of lung capacity

          b.        Degree of elasticity of the heart muscle

          c.   The amount of contact with others

          d.   High T-cell activity


10.     All of the following contribute to a higher incidence of sleep disturbances in men than in women EXCEPT

          a.        sleep apnea.

          b.        enlargement of the prostate gland.

          c.        restless legs.

          d.        lower levels of both testosterone and estrogen.


11.     Elderly people who have trouble sleeping can reduce their difficulties by

          a.        realizing they are normal and not worrying.

          b.        taking sleeping pills on a regular basis.

          c.        taking frequent short naps during the day.

          d.        cutting back on their exercise level.


12.     Elderly people tend to have more physical and psychological problems with aging if they

          a.   see it as inevitable and uncontrollable.

          b.   fight aging with exercise and diet.

          c.   use cosmetics and surgery to look young.

          d.   see aging as a time of social importance.


13.     Elderly people tend to react more positively to aging if they live in a culture that emphasizes the value of

          a.        youth and beauty.

          b.        wisdom and experience.

          c.        strength, agility, health.

          d.        bearing and raising children.


14.     Which of these cultures will tend to have elderly people who show the most physical and psychological problems?

          a.   one where the oldest people are the community leaders

          b.   one where most older people have lived there all their lives

          c.   one where most elderly people live in special housing

          d.   one where young people achieve status by caring for the elderly


15.     The public health goal of reducing the average length of time individuals are sickly before they die is called

          a.        compression of morbidity.

          b.        reduction of complaints.

          c.        anticipation of mortality.

          d.   living until you die.


16.     If an elderly couple stops having sexual activity, which partner typically initiates this cessation?

          a.   both of them equally

          b.   the woman

          c.   the man

          d.        neither; elderly couples never stop having sex


17.     Which of the following statements is true?

          a.        Although they increase with age, physical and mental disabilities are not considered a normal part of the aging process.

          b.        Physical and mental disabilities related to age are usually caused by aging.

          c.   Many physical disabilities in late adulthood are caused by aging.

          d.   Many mental disabilities in late adulthood are caused by aging.


18.     The general term for a condition that involves inflamed, painful, stiff joints is

          a.        emphysema.

          b.        osteoporosis.

          c.        rheumatism.

          d.        arthritis.


19.     Which of the following treatments has been shown to slow the course of rheumatoid arthritis?

          a.        hormone replacement therapy

          b.        electronic stimulation

          c.        regular weight-bearing exercise

          d.   early treatment with new, powerful, anti-inflammatory medications

20.     Which of these is a common indirect effect on an elderly person who has had a fall?

          a.   an increase in their health insurance rates

          b.   a fear of falling that limits their social activity

          c.   a general softening of bones near the site of the injury

          d.        anger at the friends and family who let them fall


21.     The earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are generally

          a.        personality changes.

          b.   lack of motor control.

          c.        inability to recognize loved ones.

          d.        severe memory lapses.


22.     Which of these is a sign of Alzheimer's disease if it is present in large numbers in the brain after death?

          a.        cerebral cataracts

          b.        macular degenerations

          c.        synaptic gaps

          d.        amyloid plaques


23.     Which of the following has NOT contributed to the decline of cerebrovascular dementia during the last two decades?

          a.   diets low in animal protein

          b.        healthier eating habits

          c.   a decline in heart disease

          d.   more effective stroke prevention methods


24.     In the United States, Canada, Australia, and Western Europe, at least 60 to 80 percent of all long-term care for older adults is provided by

          a.        government assistance.

          b.        nursing homes.

          c.        family members.

          d.        charitable organizations.


25.     Which sort of memory shows the smallest decline as people grow older?

          a.        implicit memory

          b.        recall memory

          c.        prospective memory

          d.        remote memory

26.     Which of these language abilities remains the most constant as adults grow older?

          a.        retrieving words from long-term memory

          b.        language comprehension

          c.        planning and organizing speech

          d.        inventing new words and phrases


27.     A common technique used by many elders to compensate for their difficulties in producing language is to

          a.        speak more loudly and forcefully.

          b.   avoid talking as much as possible.

          c.        convey information through sign language.

          d.   use simpler grammatical structures.


28.     Which of these cognitive abilities shows improvement as adults grow older?

          a.        traditional problem solving

          b.        health problem solving

          c.        practical problem solving

          d.        linguistic problem solving


29.     Which of the following has been shown to contribute to the development of wisdom later in life?

          a.   age

          b.        experience

          c.        overcoming personal hardship

          d.        hardiness


30.     In an older adult, an extended, steep decline in cognitive functioning is a sign of

          a.        impending death.

          b.   an infectious disease.

          c.        atherosclerosis.

          d.        cortical dementia.


31.     One serious drawback to the Elderhostel program is that

          a.   it is not accessible to low-income people.

          b.   it gives elders a false sense of importance.

          c.   there is no screening for the program's teachers.

          d.   most programs are too demanding physically.


32.              According to Erikson, developing a sense of ego integrity depends on

          a.        viewing one's life in the context of all of humanity.

          b.   the willingness to open up one's life to another person.

          c.        deciding who one is and what one wants from life.

          d.   the desire to make a contribution to the next generation.


33.     A special form of reminiscence that involves remembering, reflecting on, and reconsidering past experiences is called

          a.   life review.

          b.        retrospection.

          c.        recall.

          d.        recognition.


34.     When asked, approximately one-third of elders claimed that the best part of their life was _____, thus _____ the belief that older adults wish to be young again.

          a.        childhood; verifying

          b.   "right now"; contradicting

          c.        young adulthood; verifying

          d.   "still to come"; contradicting


35.     In a study of old and very old German elders, positive, _____ self-definitions predicted psychological well-being.

          a.        multifaceted

          b.        single-faceted

          c.        optimistic

          d.        focused


36.     Studies of life satisfaction throughout adulthood find that elderly adults typically report they are unhappy about

          a.   their adult children.

          b.   their financial situation.

          c.   their physical health.

          d.        nothing at all.


37.     In a longitudinal study of elders, religious participation was a strong predictor of _____ over a 12-year period.

          a.        better physical functioning

          b.        optimism

          c.        sociability

          d.        problem-centered coping strategies


38.              Compared to younger adults, elders are more likely to respond to negative life changes with

          a.   fear and anxiety.

          b.        effective coping.

          c.        depression.

          d.        mental illness.


39.     Because of the gender-related life changes in very old age, women are more likely to report _____ than are men.

          a.   a higher sense of psychological well-being

          b.   a lower sense of psychological well-being

          c.   more dependence on others

          d.   more frequent thoughts of suicide


40.     A type of suicide that is unique to older people involves

          a.        asking other people to cause your own death.

          b.        taking large doses of prescription medications.

          c.        turning on the gas in a house with closed windows.

          d.        refusing food or necessary medical treatments.


41.     Which of the following is NOT a flaw of the activity theory?

          a.   The theory fails to acknowledge any psychological change in old age.

          b.        Research has shown that merely offering opportunities for social contact does not lead to actual greater social activity.

          c.   The theory is based upon the disengagement theory, which is itself flawed.

          d.        Elders who have larger social networks are not necessarily happier.


42.     Based on the socioemotional selectivity theory, which 26-year-old person is most likely to focus on the emotional quality of social experiences?

          a.        Denise, who is in good health

          b.        David, who has recently divorced

          c.        Danielle, who has AIDS

          d.        Diedre, a quadriplegic


43.     The rate of violent crime against the elderly is _____ the rate against younger age groups.

          a.        somewhat lower than

          b.        slightly higher than

          c.        substantially higher than

          d.   the same as


44.     How does fear of crime affect the lives of older adults?

          a.        causes them to act aggressively toward people on the street

          b.        restricts activity and undermines morale

          c.        causes stress-induced health problems

          d.        creates large migrations of older adults from inner cities to the suburbs


45.     The elders who are at most serious risk for poverty are

          a.   men who live alone.

          b.        women who live alone.

          c.        couples who live together.

          d.        elders who live with their children.


46.     Because most are operated for profit, the number of nursing homes in the United States has _____, and the number of beds in these facilities has _____.

          a.        increased; increased

          b.        increased; decreased

          c.        decreased; decreased

          d.        decreased; increased


47.     Elders who are widowed are more likely to be

          a.   men.

          b.        whites.

          c.        ethnic minorities.

          d.        younger.


48.              Compared with divorced or recently widowed elders, the overall level of life satisfaction felt by elderly women who have never married is

          a.        much lower.

          b.        somewhat lower.

          c.        about the same.

          d.        somewhat higher.


49.     Elderly women who are asked to list the functions of close friendships in their lives give primary importance to

          a.   living assistance.

          b.        acceptance.

          c.   links to the outside world.

          d.        companionship.


50.              Someone who is not a very close friend but with whom one spends some time occasionally is called a

          a.        partial friend.

          b.   fair-weather friend.

          c.   joint friend.

          d.        secondary friend.


51.     Elders who have adult grandchildren typically expect them to provide

          a.   a place to move into when they need one.

          b.        regular help with day-to-day living tasks.

          c.        financial assistance with living expenses.

          d.        affection but not practical or financial help.


52.     _____, grandparents' affection for their adult grandchildren _____.

          a.        Despite more contact; decreases with age

          b.        Despite less contact; strengthens with age

          c.        Because of less contact; decreases with age

          d.        Because of more contact; increases with age


53.     Elder abuse is more common if the elder's caregiver is

          a.   a sibling or other close relative of the elder.

          b.   an adult who is at least middle-aged or older.

          c.        emotionally or financially dependent on the elder.

          d.        working in a challenging, rewarding career.


54.     Women are more likely to retire earlier than men because

          a.   they are typically better off financially.

          b.   they tend to be in better health.

          c.   they work in unstimulating environments.

          d.   of family events.


55.     The leisure activities pursued during retirement typically include

          a.   more vigorous physical activities.

          b.   new activities never pursued before.

          c.        activities that earn extra money.

          d.        things that have been lifelong interests.


56.     Which age group reports the greatest awareness of public affairs and votes at the highest rate?

          a.        middle-aged adults.

          b.   late adolescents.

          c.        elderly adults.

          d.        young adults.


57.     All of the following are barriers that older adults face when trying to obtain health care, housing, and social services EXCEPT

          a.        inadequate funding.

          b.   lack of services in rural communities.

          c.        access is legally guaranteed only to those who can afford services.

          d.   lack of education.

58.     The agonal phase of the dying process includes

          a.        gasps and muscle spasms as body systems fail.

          b.   body systems that have stopped but could be restarted.

          c.   the struggle to maintain life though it is painful.

          d.   a cessation of heartbeat and breathing but not brain waves.


59.     The term used by the medical profession for individuals whose brain stems continue to function but who show no electrical activity at all in the cortex is

          a.   brain death.

          b.        persistent vegetative state.

          c.        imminent mortality.

          d.        coma.


60.     An important service doctors and other medical people can provide to dying people is to provide

          a.        knowledge about their condition and their options.

          b.        comfortable surroundings and no decisions to make.

          c.        protection from too much clinical information.

          d.        mood enhancers to keep them cheerful and optimistic.


61.     The first part of the death concept that children accept is

          a.        universality.

          b.        permanence.

          c.        nonfunctionality.

          d.        equality.


62.     When explaining death to a child, parents should

          a.        present scientific evidence on the physical aspects of death.

          b.        focus on the religious aspect of death.

          c.        blend scientific knowledge and religious beliefs.

          d.   let their child's teachers address any questions the child has.


63.              Compared with middle-aged people, older adults think more about which aspect of death?

          a.   what the state of death would be like

          b.   why people should ever have to die

          c.   the process and circumstances of death

          d.   the meaning of both life and death


64.     The belief that one will continue to live on through one's children or one's work or personal influence is

          a.   a form of denial of the inevitability of death.

          b.        evidence that a person has accepted the inevitability of death.

          c.   a personal fable.

          d.        symbolic immortality.


65.     Which factor can cause increased death anxiety in children?

          a.        having a terminal illness

          b.        having a deep religious faith

          c.        spirituality that focuses on a sense of life's meaning

          d.        being a devout atheist


66.     One of the problems with medical treatment for the dying that emphasizes aggressive treatment rather than comfort care is that it promotes which of the stages of dying in Kbler-Ross's theory?

          a.        bargaining

          b.        denial

          c.        depression

          d.        morbidity


67.     Most people who reach the acceptance stage

          a.        usually use emotion-centered coping strategies.

          b.   have a deep religious faith.

          c.   do so only in the last weeks or days of life.

          d.   have illnesses that cause them a great deal of physical pain.


68.     _____ can reduce the dying person's sense of urgency to prolong life because it permits some incomplete tasks to be worked through.

          a.        Family contact

          b.   A religious conversion

          c.        Drawing up a living will

          d.        Administration of strong pain killers


69.     What services do most hospitals need to provide more effectively when patients die suddenly in emergency rooms?

          a.        allowing the family to be with the patient

          b.   quick action to prevent death if possible

          c.   more information about the cause of death

          d.        crisis intervention services for the survivors


70.     Today, the term hospice refers to

          a.   a location providing specialized medical care to dying people.

          b.   a program of support services for dying people and their families.

          c.        alternative care for dying people that uses minimal medication.

          d.        medical care that is focused on prolonging a dying person's life.


71.     Many Americans do not take full advantage of hospice services because

          a.   they are unaffordable to most people.

          b.   they conflict with the philosophies of many Western religions.

          c.   their relatives die suddenly in accidents rather than through a long-term dying process.

          d.   they are unfamiliar with the philosophy.


72.     A written document in which people specify the treatments they do and do not want in cases when they are near to death is called a(n)

          a.        durable power of attorney for health care.

          b.   living will.

          c.        health care plan.

          d.        euthanasia directive.


73.     One important advantage of a durable power of attorney for health care over a living will is that the power of attorney

          a.   will deal more flexibly with unexpected situations.

          b.   will last longer than a living will without renewal.

          c.   will ensure that your exact wishes are followed.

          d.   is accepted in more states than living wills.


74.     The argument for assisted suicide was ____ by a study of elders who stated that if terminally ill, only 10 percent would _____.

          a.        completely ridiculed; refuse assisted suicide if offered

          b.        strengthened; want to stay alive

          c.        weakened; end their lives

          d.        maintained; choose euthanasia in any form.


75.     The phase of the grieving process during which grief is experienced and expressed most intensely is called

          a.        accommodation.

          b.        confrontation.

          c.        depression.

          d.        resistance.


76.     Which phase of the grieving process is particularly pronounced after a sudden, unexpected death?

          a.        accommodation

          b.        avoidance

          c.        confrontation

          d.        mourning


77.     Which sort of bereavement is typically the most intense and long-lasting?

          a.        death of a husband

          b.        death of a wife

          c.        death of a sibling

          d.        death of a child


78.     When an individual experiences several deaths close together, it may result in a condition called

          a.        mourning failure.

          b.        excessive grief.

          c.        bereavement overload.

          d.        morbidity intensification.


79.     In a study of middle-aged adults after a family member's death, _____ was strongly related to well-being over a year later.

          a.   the ability to see benefits of the grieving experience in one's own life

          b.        personality type

          c.   the speed at which one moved through the grieving process

          d.   the length of time that one spent in the avoidance phase


80.     One of the best ways to reduce the anxiety and distress people feel about the idea of death is to

          a.   help them confront their own mortality.

          b.        provide them with accurate information.

          c.        protect them from dealing with death.

          d.   avoid raising the issue until adulthood.