The Mormon Mummies and Papyri in Ohio

H. Donl Peterson

The Egyptian papyri that came into the hands of the Prophet Joseph Smith in Kirtland, Ohio, in 1835, contained holy writ. Some of the writings of Abraham, the venerated "father of the faithful," and Joseph, his equally illustrious great-grandson, were preserved on these ancient scrolls.

The story began in ancient Egypt nearly four millennia ago, and the ongoing saga of the preservation of their writings is very complex. This paper will primarily center around the story of the Egyptian antiquities relative to the Ohio period. Three residents of Ohio are central characters in the story: Michael H. Chandler, who sold the papyrus to the latter-day prophet; Joseph Smith, who purchased, translated and published part of the message from the papyri; and Abel Combs, who purchased the four mummies "with the records of them" from Emma Smith Bidamon and relegated most of them once again into the shadows of the historical twilight zone.

Michael H. Chandler

Michael H. Chandler was born in Ireland about 1797.fn He married Frances F. Ludlow about 1819, also a native of Ireland.fn Their four oldest children were born to them in Ireland before their emigration to the United States: Thomas in 1820, Ann in 1822, William H. in 1824 or 1825, and George W. in 1827.fn The family of six moved to Ohio between 1827 and 1829. A fifth child, a daughter Catherine, was born in either Canada or Ohio in 1829 or 1830.fn The family then moved to Pennsylvania about 1831, where Frances F. (6) was born in 1831; John A. (7) was born in 1833 or 1834; and Eliza Jane (8) was born in 1834.fn

Chandler's lifestyle was forever changed by a shipment of cargo sent from the port of Trieste to the port of New York City. The date of arrival is unknown, but it was sent by a shipping company owned by Albano Oblasser of Trieste to the firms of "McLeod and Gillespie of Maitland and Kennedy," which was involved with maritime commerce in New York.fn The cargo consisted of eleven Egyptian mummies and other boxes of related materials.fn According to a legal document located in the state archives in Torino, these New York merchants were commissioned to sell the cache of mummies and artifacts for the highest price and then send quittance to the Lebolo family in Castellamonte in the Piedmonte.fn On October 5, 1833, a friend of the Lebolo's, Francesco Bertola, who had moved to Philadelphia from Castellamonte, was authorized by mail to check on the New York shipping companies to find out why recompense had not been sent to the Lebolos for the sale of the Egyptian collection.fn Since there were no follow-up letters, it is assumed that the transaction was completed soon after that.

How Michael H. Chandler became involved in the story remains a mystery. When he sold the remaining four mummies to the Church in Kirtland in early July 1835, he reported to the leaders that he was a nephew of Antonio Lebolo and had inherited the eleven mummies through a will.fn However, in 1984 Lebolo's will was found in Turin, Italy, and neither Chandler nor the mummies is mentioned.fn

In 1831, Pietro Lebolo, Antonio's oldest son, was authorized by the administrators of his father's estate to travel to Trieste, where Antonio had had business holdings, to liquidate his father's assets or to take legal action against three parties who had not yet paid the Lebolo family for his interests. Among the three debtors was Albano Oblasser, the ship owner who had the eleven mummies left with him by Antonio Lebolo. According to relevant documents, Oblasser was to send the mummies to New York to sell them through the four New York merchants.fn Chandler reported to Joseph Smith, Oliver Cowdery, and associates that the mummies had come through Dublin, but no evidence has been uncovered that corroborates this.fn Chandler stated that Lebolo's will ordered the mummies to be sent to him in Ireland, but since he had emigrated to the United States his Irish friends had forwarded them on to Chandler in the States.fn This story is undocumented. How Chandler eventually learned of the mummies is unknown, but the report that he inherited them through a will appears to be unfounded. Since Chandler lived in Philadelphia, why were the antiquities sent to New York City? What legal papers could he possibly have to prove his claim? He must have had some document, however, to accurately identify Thebes, Antonio Lebolo, Mehemet Ali, Drovetti, etc. Chandler reported to the LDS Church leaders that Lebolo exhumed the mummies from the Westbank of the Nile on 7 June 1831, but this was sixteen months after Lebolo had died.fn This cannot be dismissed as a mistake in Church History since Chandler mentioned a later date on at least one other occasion.fn It appears that Chandler did not appear to have the antiquities prior to late 1832 or early 1833.

By whatever means he obtained them, Chandler first displayed the mummies in Philadelphia on April 3, 1833.fn He exhibited them at the Masonic Hall, between 3-22 April 1833, and then later at the Philadelphia Arcade between May 10 and June 3. These exhibitions were well advertised in the newspapers.fn Chandler took his exhibit to Baltimore, where it was displayed for three to five weeks in July and August 1833.fn The exhibit was also in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, for a short time in September 1833.fn

Chandler sold several mummies shortly after he received them.fn By the time he was in Harrisburg the number had dwindled from eleven to six. Chandler's whereabouts from September 1833 until March 1835 are unknown. He displayed the mummies in 1835 in Cleveland in the Western Reserve.fn The number had diminished to the final four. One newspaper account mentioned that Chandler explained the display well and that he was attempting to sell the collection.fn

With the headquarters of the LDS Church near by, Chandler, during the last of June, 1835, took his artifacts to Kirtland to finally meet the controversial Mormon prophet, Joseph Smith. Believers and skeptics alike had mentioned to Chandler Joseph Smith's claim of translating a holy book from ancient Egyptian writings engraved on plates of gold.fn Chandler had asked the best linguists in the country for an interpretation of some of his writings, but the language eluded the scholars of the day. The dictionary developed by the French linguistic genius Jean Champollion, who was first to read the ancient hieroglyphs in modern times, was not yet available.fn Scholars could only identify and explain certain glyphs but they could not translate them.fn

Joseph Smith

Chandler rented a room at the Riggs Hotel in Kirtland and stated his business to the proprietor, Gideon Riggs, i.e. that he was in town to publicly display four Egyptian mummies and some papyri, and also to discuss the collection with the Mormon prophet.fn Riggs sent his son John to Joseph's home to invite the prophet to come and see the antiquities and discuss the possibility of translating the ancient language.

The son, John Riggs, tells the following story relative to the Chandler-Joseph Smith meeting:

When Mr. Chandler arrived in Kirtland with his Egyptian mummies to exhibit, he put up at the hotel of Father Riggs, who, at the request of Chandler, sent his son to the Prophet's house to invite him and family to attend the exhibition that evening, but Joseph was engaged to attend a meeting and could not come. Young Riggs was again sent, with a note asking when Mr. Chandler could have an interview with the Prophet, who replied that he would come in the morning at 8 o'clock, which he did; and young Riggs was present when the Prophet first saw the papyrus from which is translated the Book of Abraham. Joseph was permitted to take the papyrus home with him, Father Riggs vouching for its return, and the morning following Joseph came with the leaves which he had translated, which Oliver Cowdery read, and Mr. Chandler then produced the translation of Professor Anthon as far as the professor could translate it. Dr. Riggs, who was present at the reading, says that the translation of the Prophet and the professor agreed so far, but "there was one language Professor Anthon could not translate which the Prophet did."fn

The only entry in the HC states:

On the 3rd of July, Michael H. Chandler came to Kirtland to exhibit some Egyptian mummies. There were four human figures, together with some two or more rolls of papyrus covered with hieroglyphic figures and devices. As Mr. Chandler had been told I could translate them, he brought me some of the characters, and I gave him the interpretation, and like a gentleman, he gave me the following certificate:

Kirtland, July 6, 1835.

This is to make known to all who may be desirous, concerning the knowledge of Mr. Joseph Smith, Jun., in deciphering the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic characters in my possession, which I have, in many eminent cities, showed to the most learned; and, from the information that I could ever learn, or meet with, I find that of Mr. Joseph Smith, Jun., to correspond in the most minute matters.

Michael H. Chandler

Traveling with, and proprietor of, Egyptian mummies.fn

The scribe quoted in the HC dates Chandler's coming to Kirtland on 3 July 1835. However, W. W. Phelps in a letter to his wife Sally lists Chandler's entry as "the last of June."fn

Oliver Cowdery did not want anyone to conclude that Michael H. Chandler had written the certificate as a condition for selling the mummies and papyri to the Church. He wrote a letter to a gentleman by the name of William Frye and later published it in the Messenger and Advocate:

The foregoing is verbatim as given by Mr. C. excepting the addition of punctuation, and speaks sufficiently plain without requiring comment from me. It was given previous to the purchase of the antiquities, by any person here.fn

The Prophet felt impressed to buy the records, apparently unaware of their contents, and the price was set at $2,400. Joseph had no interest in buying the mummies, but Chandler replied that the mummies without the writings would have considerably less public appeal. Joseph Coe and Simeon Andrews each contributed $800; Joseph Smith raised the additional third through people contributing under his name at the Geauga County bank.fn

Michael Chandler chose to leave Pennsylvania and remain in the West. After Chandler sold his Egyptian collection to the Church he purchased a fifty-seven acre farm in Parkman, Ohio and later sold it and bought an eighty-three acre farm nearby. Chandler farmed the land until his death on October 21, 1866. The Chandlers eventually had twelve children. Frances F. Chandler, Michael's widow, died on August 27, 1895, at the age of 97. The corner where they lived is still known by some natives as "Chandler's corner." Michael and Frances and two of their children, Henry A. and Eliza Jane, are buried on the same plot in the West Farmington cemetery about two miles east of their farm.fn No documents have been found that identify Chandler with the Mormons or the mummies and papyri after he sold the artifacts to the Church.

The experienced Book of Mormon scribe, Oliver Cowdery, along with W. W. Phelps, acting as the prophet's secretaries, proceeded to translate the newly acquired manuscripts. Church history records "that much to our joy found that one of the rolls contained the writings of Abraham, another the writings of Joseph of Egypt."fn

The History of the Church continues:

The remainder of this month [July 1835], I was continually engaged in translating an alphabet to the Book of Abraham, and arranging: a grammar of the Egyptian language as practiced by the ancients.fn

Important Church business kept the three Church leaders from continuing the translation during the months of August and September 1835. W. W. Phelps, in a letter to his wife Sally, dated 16 September 1835, wrote, "Nothing has been doing in the translation of the Egyptian record for a long time, and probably will not for some time to come."fn

On October 1, 1835 the prophet and his two scribes returned to their work with the Egyptian papyri. The Church history entry reads:

October 1.-This afternoon I labored on the Egyptian alphabet, in company with Brothers Oliver Cowdery and W. W. Phelps, and during the research, the principles of astronomy as understood by Father Abraham and the ancients unfolded to our understanding, the particulars of which will appear hereafter.fn

On October 7, 1835, the HC states "this afternoon I recommenced translating the ancient records."fn

By October 24, 1835, Joseph no longer kept the mummies and papyri together. The history states: "Mr. Goodrich and his lady called to see the ancient records also called at Doct. F.G. Williams to see the mummies.fn

A revelation given to Warren Parrish, Joseph Smith's newly appointed scribe, on 14 November 1835, reads

he shall see much of my ancient records, and shah know of hidden things, and shall be endowed with a knowledge of hidden language; and if he desire and shall seek it at my hands, he shall be privileged with writing much of my word, as a scribe for the benefit of my people.fn

On 19 November 1835 the History continues: "I returned home and spent the day in translating the Egyptian records."fn

The next day, November 20, 1835, was also a productive day. Joseph recorded, "We spent the day in translating and made rapid progress."fn

Joseph Smith and Warren Parrish continued translating in the afternoon of November 24 and all day November 25 and 26, 1835.fn

The next entry that refers to Joseph translating the papyri occurred nearly three months later: "Monday 22 -Spent the afternoon translating with my scribe, Elder Warren Parrish, at his house."fn

A week before this Joseph Smith reported that Joseph Coe:

Called to make some arrangements about the Egyptian mummies and records. He proposes to hire a room at John Johnson's Inn and exhibit them there from day to day, at certain hours, that some benefit may be derived from them. I complied with his request, and only observed that they must be managed with prudence and care, especially the manuscripts.fn

Joseph Coe probably could see that his $800 loan to assist in the purchase of the mummies and manuscripts was not soon to be repaid, since the translation was moving rather slowly, and it was not ready for publication and sale.

It was over a year and a half later that the "Church in Kirtland voted to sanction the appointment of Brother Phineas Richards and Reuben Hedlock, by the Presidency, to transact business for the Church in procuring means to translate and print the records taken by the catacombs of Egypt, then in the temple."fn

It was the "worst of times" for the Saints in Kirtland in late 1837. Only ten weeks after plans were made to raise funds to translate and print the sacred writings of the prophet Abraham, Joseph Smith was forced to flee in the night to escape mob violence, traveling sixty miles in ten hours on horseback.fn

It is difficult to estimate how much time Joseph Smith actually spent working with his secretaries on the translation of the Book of Abraham and with the Egyptian alphabet and grammar. He mentioned working on the translation the "rest of July" 1835, perhaps 20 days, also in the afternoons of October 1 and 7, and four and one half days in November 1835 (November 19, 20, 24, 25, 26). The number of days referred to in the History is 25. Unfortunately, there are many gaps in the Church history, and too many incomplete entries that make it impossible to be accurate.

Over four years later, 8 March 1842, Joseph Smith was preparing the second installment of the Book of Abraham for publication in the tenth number of the Times and Seasons. Abraham 1: 1 -2:18 had been printed in the ninth number.fn On March 9, 1842, the journal entry reads: "Examining copy for the Times and Seasons ... in the afternoon continued the translation of the Book of Abraham... and continued translating and revising…in the evening." The tenth number of the Times and Seasons, published on 15 March 1842, contained the rest of the text of the Book of Abraham as we have it today (Abr. 2:19 -5:21).fn It was nearly eleven months later, on February 1, 1843, when more of the Book of Abraham was promised for the subscribers of the Times and Seasons.fn Unfortunately, the chaotic end of Joseph's life curtailed his opportunities to return to the translation and publication of the sacred records.

This brief account cannot recount the fascinating story of the mummies and papyri in Kirtland after Joseph left for Missouri. The mummies were taken for a short time into custody by Sheriff Markell because they were a target for some anti-Mormons; they were taken to New Portage for safe keeping. Whether the mummies and manuscripts were taken to Missouri or whether they remained in obscurity in Ohio and then taken directly to Nauvoo is not clear. Accounts present both alternatives.fn

Abel Combs

Abel Combs was the last "buckeye" that had major dealings with the mummies and papyri. He purchased them for an unknown sum from Joseph Smith's heirs on May 26, 1856, just 12 days after the death of the Prophet's mother, Lucy Mack Smith, who had kept them in her care since the martyrdom of her two sons at Carthage.fn The story is still incomplete, but the following relates what is known.

Abel Combs was born in the state of New York about 1823.fn He was living in Bristol, Trumbull County, Ohio when he and Jane Johnson were married on April 8, 1844.fn In July 1845, a son, Oscar A., was born to them in Trumbull County, Ohio, their only child.fn On 5 August 1850, they are enumerated in the census records in District #143 in Farmington, Trumbull County, Ohio.fn Combs is next documented as purchasing the Mormon mummies and manuscripts from Emma Smith Bidamon, the prophet's widow, Lewis C. Bidamon, Emma's husband, and Joseph and Emma's oldest son, Joseph III. The bill of sale reads:

This certifies that we have sold to Mr. A. Combs four Egyptian Mummies with the records of them. This mummies were obtained from the catacoms of Egypt sixty feet below the surface of the Earth. by the antiquaritan society of Paris & forwarded to New York & purchased by the Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith at the price of twenty four hundred dollars in the year eighteen hundred thirty five they were highly prized by Mr. Smith on account of the importance which attached to the record which were accidentaly found enclosed in the breast of one of the Mummies. From translations by Mr. Smith of the Records. these Mummies were found to be the family of Pharo King of Egypt. they were kept exclusively by Mr. Smith until his death & since by the Mother of Mr. Smith notwithstanding we have had repeated offers to purchase which have invariably been refused until her death which occurred on the fourteenth day of May last." Signed: "L.C. Bidamon, Emma Bidamon, Joseph Smith [her son]. Nauvoo, Hancock Co. Ill, May 26.fn

Two of the four mummies and some papyri were sold to the St. Louis museum in 1856.fn In 1863 these two mummies and some records were sold to the Wood's Museum in Chicago. The most common version of the story is that the two mummies and the records were burned in the Chicago fire in 1871. The other two mummies that Combs purchased, and possibly some records, haven't been located yet.

Many questions arise relative to Combs' involvement in the story. How did Abel Combs learn of the Egyptian collection? Why did he presume it was for sale? Did he know that Mother Smith had died, or was it coincidental that he was in Nauvoo when he was? Nothing is definite, but some possibilities exist. As a young man, Abel Combs lived within a few miles of Kirtland and may have seen the mummies if he lived in Ohio between 1835 and 1837. If he did not see them he must have heard of them, since something as unusual as a traveling display of Egyptian mummies would surely excite the people on the frontier. Since the Latter-day Saints made such a lasting impression on the citizenry in Northeastern Ohio, perhaps events in Nauvoo were still newsworthy in Ohio. The small township of Parkman, where Michael H. Chandler lived from 1836 until his death in 1866, is just a few miles from Bristol, where Abel Combs lived for several years. Whether Combs knew the Chandlers and their ties with the mummies and the Mormons is a possibility. The newspapers in Cleveland, Chardon, and Warren, Ohio, might determine whether the death notice of Lucy Mack Smith may have been printed in Ohio with a reference to the mummies. Where was Abel Combs living in 18567 Might he have lived in the Nauvoo area? What was his occupation in 1856?

In 1874 Abel Combs, living in Philadelphia listed his occupation in the City Directory as "lamps."fn In 1888 his occupation was listed as "artist."fn Abel Combs died in Philadelphia on July 5, 1892 at the age of 69.fn The eleven papyri fragments that were returned to the Church by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in November 1967 came through the family of Abel Combs' nurse, Charlotte Benecke Weaver. Her daughter, Alice Combs Weaver Heusser, brought eleven papyri fragments to the Metropolitan Museum in New York City in 1918 to have them appraised. Through minutes kept of that meeting, museum officials contacted the Heusser family in 1945 to see if they still had the fragments and whether they would be interested in selling the eleven papyri fragments.fn These eleven fragments were discovered in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City by Dr. Aziz Atiya of the University of Utah Middle East Center in 1966. They were presented to the Church, represented by President N. Eldon Tanner, on 27 November 1967.


Although many questions concerning the story are left unanswered what is known of the story allows us to glimpse the hand of the Almighty working through ordinary people to bring about his eternal purposes. Three Ohio citizens, Michael H. Chandler, Joseph Smith, and Abel Combs, all played an important part in the ongoing drama of the restoration of the Gospel.

1. Thomas Milton Tinney, Michael H. Chandler and the Pearl of Great Price (Part I, II, and III, Salt Lake City 1975, 1976). Thomas Tinney was the researcher who located Michael H. Chandler in the State of Ohio and pieced together much of his life's story through excellent and meticulous genealogical research.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Notaio di Torino, Clemente Calonzo, October 5, 1833. A photocopy of the papers are in the possession of the writer.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid.

10. HC 2:349.

11. I was researching in Castellamonte and Turin, Italy, in 1984 relative to this research. Before my arrival, an Italian member of the Church, Adriano Comollo, had attempted to locate Lebolo's will, without success. As we discussed the matter, Adriano stated that he had seen Lebolo's signature on a document in the State Archives in Turin and asked if I would like it photographed. I was very interested, but I was leaving for Cairo. Adriano went to the archives, and while there he noticed some other legal papers by the same notary that had worked with Lebolo. He shortly discovered the will and many other documents of Lebolo's as he worked with papers of the notary, Giacomo Buffa. I returned from Cairo with my assistant, and we photographed the will and a lengthy inventory as well as several other relevant documents. The will detailed all Lebolo's holdings, which were considerable, but no mummies or Irish relatives were mentioned.

12. Notaio di Torino, Clement Colonzo op. cit.

13. See HC 2:349. I have not seen any evidence in the Dublin newspapers that the mummies were advertised. So far the hometowns of Michael H. Chandler and Frances are unknown. Research in Ireland is difficult because many of the Irish genealogical records were burned by incendiaries in a fire in 1921. If the birthplaces of the Chandler children are fair guides, Chandler was in the United States after 1828 or 1829.

14. If Chandler was living in the United States after 1828 or 1829, his friends would surely know by 1832 or 1833 that he had emigrated to the United States.

15. Many documents from several sources confirm Lebolo's death date: the Peter and Paul Catholic Parish records in Castellamonte, the will, and several other notarial documents. Photocopies of these documents are in my possession.

16. An article in the Painesville, [Ohio,] Telegraph, March 27, 1835, relative to Chandler's display, states: "I send you a description of four mummies, now exhibiting in this place. They were found in June 1832-three miles from Thebes."

17. The mummies and papyri were well advertised in prominent newspapers. The U.S. Gazette ad read in part:

The largest collection of Egyptian Mummies ever exhibited in this city, is now to be seen at the Masonic Hall, in the Chestnut Street above Seventh.

They were found in the vicinity of Thebes, by the celebrated traveler, Antonio Lebolo and Chevalier Drovetti, General Counsel of France in Egypt.

Some writings on Papirus [sic] found with the mummies, can also be seen and will afford, no doubt, much satisfaction to Amateurs of Antiquities. (April 3, 1833)

The mummies were displayed in Philadelphia between April 3 and June 3, 1833.

18. Even though many early newspapers are not preserved, I have found 69 articles in Philadelphia papers alone.

19. The existing Baltimore papers are incomplete for 1833. Chandler's advertisement in the Baltimore American and Commercial Advertiser ran sporadically between 22 July through 9 August 1833. Chandler also advertised his exhibit by placards as he traveled about. The placard read, "They [the mummies] have been exhibited in Philadelphia and Baltimore, to crowded audiences; in the latter place, although only engaged for two weeks, the exhibition was prolonged to five weeks with attraction" (Times and Seasons, May 2, 1842, p. 774).

20. It was advertised only one day in the Harrisburg Chronicle, dated 9 September 1833. The heading reads, "Six Egyptian Mummies. Now exhibiting in the Masonic Hall, Harrisburg."

21. Chandler explained the whereabouts of the seven mummies that he no longer had: "The seven have been sold to gentlemen for private museums, and in consequence are kept from the eye of the public" (Times and Seasons, May 21, 1842, p. 774).

22. Both the Cleveland Whig dated March 25, 1835, and the Painesville Telegraph of March 27, 1835, give considerable space to the exhibition. The Whig reporter wrote, "We accepted the invitation of Mr. Chandler to visit last evening his exhibition, just opened at the Cleveland House of Four Egyptian Mummies, purporting to have been obtained from Thebes, by the celebrated traveller Lebelo [sic]." The article continues, "There is no concealment about this exhibition; the spectator is allowed to examine as critically as he pleases; and in this respect it is much more satisfactory than any similar exhibition we ever witnessed."

23. The Cleveland Advertiser, Thursday, 26 March 1833, after mentioning the mummies and the freedom one had to examine them carefully, reports, "Specimens of the ancient method of writing on papyrus, found with the mummies, are also shown by Mr. Chandler, whose intelligent conversation adds much to the interest of the exhibition."

"The collection is offered for sale by the proprietor."

24. Chandler apparently reported to the LDS leaders that at the very outset of his dealings with the mummies, a stranger in New York City mentioned that Joseph Smith, Jr., "possesses some kind of power or gifts, by which he had previously translated similar characters" (see HC 2:349).

25. Champollion's dictionary of Egyptian hieroglyphics was probably unavailable in the United States until the late 1830s. The Cleveland Whig reporter, after seeing the Chandler papyrus, wrote: "The characters are the Egyptian hyeroglyphics [sic]; but of what it discourses none can tell. That probably, like the name of the author, and of the figure before you, will never be unfolded" (Cleveland Whig, 25 March 1833).

26. Orson Pratt explained: "Mr. C. had also obtained from learned men the best translation he could of some few characters, which however, was not a translation, but more in the shape of their ideas with regard to it, their acquaintance with the language not being sufficient to enable them to translate it literally" (Orson Pratt, JD 20:64).

27. Gideon Riggs moved to Kirtland in 1818. He was keeping the only hotel in Kirtland when Oliver Cowdery, Peter Whitmer, and Ziba Peterson came to Kirtland to preach. See Tullidge's Quarterly Magazine, Vol. 3 No. III, 1885, pp. 282-283.

28. Ibid, p. 283.

29. HC 2:235.

30. Phelps, Leah Y., "Letters of Faith from Kirtland, Improvement Era (August 1942), p. 529).

31. Messenger and Advocate, Vol. 2, No. 3:235. December 1835.

32. Joseph Coe's letter to Joseph Smith, January 1, 1844. Microfilm, BYU.

33. When the writer visited the cemetery in West Farmington, Ohio in June 1989, the beautiful nine-feet-high marker had been broken and was lying on the ground. The base with the names was still standing intact.

34. HC 2:236.

35. HC 2:238.

36. (MS4587 CHO SLC) Courtesy of Bruce Van Orden.

37. HC 2:286, October 1, 1835.

38. HC 2:289.

39. Jessee, Dean, Personal Writings of Joseph Smith, p. 64. The HC is confusing in its wording.

40. HC 2:311-312.

41. HC 2:318.

42. Ibid.

43. HC 2:320-321.

44. HC 2:398, February 22, 1836.

45. HC 2:396, February 17, 1836.

46. HC 2:520-521, November 2, 1837.

47. Anderson, Karl Ricks, Joseph Smith's Kirtland, Deseret Book Co., 1989, p. 236.

48. Times and Seasons, Vol. 3, No. 9, March 1, 1842, pp. 703-706.

49. HC 4:520-534 and 548.

50. Times and Seasons 4:95, February 1, 1843.

51. "Samuel Woolley in a diary entry in 1838, claims the distinction of helping to transport the mummies and papyrus from Kirtland, Ohio, to Far West Missouri." (BYU Studies 1968 Vol. 3 No. 2, p. 200). William I Appleby states "from Kirtland they [the mummies and papyrus] were removed to Nauvoo."

52. Todd Jay M., Saga of the Book of Abraham, Deseret Book Co., 1969, pp. 287-290.

53. Death notice, Philadelphia, July 5, 1892.

54. Marriage Records, Trumbull Co., Ohio.

55. 1900 Census of Atlantic City, New Jersey.

56. 1850 Census of Trumbull Co., Ohio.

57. Improvement Era, January 1968, p. 16.

58. Saga, pp. 296-303.

59. 1874 Philadelphia City Directory.

60. 1888 Philadelphia City Directory.

61. Philadelphia Death Register, also obituary notices.

62. Saga, p. 348-350.

(Milton V. Backman, Jr., ed., Regional Studies in Latter-day Saint History: Ohio [Provo: BYU Department of Church History and Doctrine, 1990], .)49. HC 4:520-534 and 548.