LESSON 1 BASIC STRUCTURE OF MEDICAL WORDS





THE FIVE WORD PARTS



Most medical terms use some or all of the five word parts. These are:



1. Prefixes. Prefixes come at the beginning of the medical word to modify the meaning.



2. Suffixes. Suffixes come at the end of the medical word to modify the meaning and to explain the state of the word root.



3. Word Root. Word roots are the main part of the medical word that usually identifies a body structure, body function or disease process as its main meaning.



4. Combining Vowel.

Combining vowels come after a prefix or word root to help in the pronunciation of the medical word. The combining vowel is usually an "o."



5. Combining Form.

Combining form is the word root and combining vowel used together for pronunciation of the word part.



Following are examples of the use of the five word parts.



Prefix and Word Root Examples



Using the word bicycle, first divide the word into its word parts:



Bi/cycle



Then define each word part:



Prefix: Bi Meaning: Two

Word Root: Cycle Meaning: Wheeled vehicle



Next, combine the two word part meanings into a term definition:



Combined Meaning: Two-wheeled vehicle



In the English language, we generally define words from the front to the back (prefix to suffix). In medical terms, we generally define the word from back to front. For example, if the word bicycle was a medical term, it would be defined as a "vehicle with two wheels" rather than as a "two-wheeled vehicle."



Other examples of prefix and word root combinations:



Tricycle Tri/cycle

Three-wheeled vehicle Three/wheeled vehicle

Prefix/Word root



Uniform Uni/form

One classification One/classify

Prefix/Word Root



Prefix, Combining Vowel and Word Root Examples



Automobile Aut/o/mobile

Self-moving vehicle Self/o/moving vehicle

Prefix/combining vowel/word root



Streptococci Strept/o/cocci

A twisted bacteria Twisted chain/o/rounded bacteria

Prefix/combining vowel/word root



Aeroplane Aer/o/plane

In air over flat surface Air/o/flat surface

Prefix/combining vowel/word root



Prefix, Combining Vowel, Word Root, and Suffix Examples



Orthodontist Orth/o/dont/ist

One who straightens teeth Straight/o/tooth/one who practices

Prefix/combining vowel/word root/suffix



Electrophrenic Electr/o/phren/ic

Mind and electricity Electricity/o/mind/related to

Prefix/combining vowel/word root/suffix



Electrotherapist Electr/o/therap/ist

One who uses electricity Electricity/o/therapy/one who practices

for therapy Prefix/combining vowel/word root/suffix



Word Root, Combining Vowel, and Suffix Examples



Photograph Phot/o/graph

Result of instrument using light Light/o/instrument

Word root/combining vowel/suffix



Angiogram Angi/o/gram

Picture of blood vessel Blood vessel/o/picture

Word root/combining vowel/suffix



Gastrologist Gastro/o/logist

One who studies stomach Stomach/o/one who studies

Word root/combining vowel/suffix



Examples of Common English Words Using the Five Word Parts



COMMON WORD / BREAKDOWN / MEANING



Electric Electr/ic Pertaining to electricity

Thermometer Therm/o/meter Measuring temperature

Dental Dent/al Pertaining to teeth

Claustrophobia Claustr/o/phobia Fear of closed spaces

Bronchitis Bronch/itis Inflammation of bronchial tubes

Brachial Brachi/al Pertaining to upper arm

Basic Bas/ic Pertaining to fundamental things

Paramedic Para/med/ic Pertaining to around medicine

Mania Man/ia Pertaining to madness



















WORD PARTS FOR LESSON 1



A. Prefixes Meaning



1. a, an- not, without

2. aut- self

3. bi- two

4. carcin- cancer

5. contra- opposed, against

6. dia- through, apart, across

7. dys- bad, difficult, painful

8. em-, en- in, inside

9. end, endo, ent, ento- inner, within

10. epi-, ep- upon, on, over

11. erythr- red

12. eti- causing, cause

13. eu- good

14. hyper- excessive

15. hypo- deficient

16. gno- to know

17. lei- smooth

18. leuk- white

19. melan- black

20. meta- change

21. neo- new

22. poly- many

23. sarc- connective tissue, flesh

24. tri- three

25. uni- one





B. Suffixes Meaning



1. -algia pain

2. -dynia pain

3. -cyte cell

4. -ectomy cut out, excision

5. -gen, -genesis beginning of cause

6. -iatr one who practices medicine

7. -ician one who practices on

8. -ist one who practices

9. -itis inflammation

10. -ology study of

11. -ologist one who studies

12. -oma tumor

13. -otomy cut into, incision into

14. -plasty surgical repair, plastic repair





Additional Suffixes Meaning



1. -ac pertaining to

2. -al pertaining to

3. -ar pertaining to

4. -ary pertaining to

5. -ic pertaining to

6. -ous pertaining to

7. -ia condition, abnormal state

8. -osis condition, abnormal state

9. -tic condition, abnormal state

10. -y condition, abnormal state





C. Word Roots Meaning



1. aden gland

2. angi blood vessel

3. cheil lip

4. cyte cell

5. dactyl digit, finger, toe

6. dent, dont tooth

7. hist tissue

8. lip fat

9. mast breast

10. phleb vein

11. phob fear

12. phren mind, diaphragm

13. pleg paralysis

14. zoo animal





WORD LIST FOR LESSON 1

(A medical dictionary may be needed to define some of the terms in this word list.)



adactylia-without fingers

adenalgia-gland pain

adenodynia-gland pain

adenectomy-gland removal

adenology-gland study

adenosis-conditions of glands

analgia-without pain

analgesic-pertaining to stopping pain

angiologist-one who studies blood vessels

angioma-tumor of a blood vessel

angioplasty-repair of blood vessels

autogenic-originating in self

autoplasty-repair using own tissue

bifocal-two vision

cheiloplasty-repair of lip

cheilalgia-pain in lip

contraception-against conception

contraindication-against recommend

cytometer-measure cell

cytotoxin-poisoning cells

dactylitis-inflammation of fingers or toes

diagnosis-through knowing, to know

dysdentogenic-origination of tooth decay

dysphrenic-bad mind

empathic-pertaining to inside others diseases

endoangitis-inflammation inside blood vessel

endodontologist-one who studies inside teeth

endodontitis-inflammation inside tooth

epidermosis-condition upon skin

erthrocyte-red blood cell

etiologist-one who studies causes of disease

eubacterium-good bacteria

euadenic-good glands

euthyroid-good thyroid

histocyte-tissue and cells

histoma-tumor of tissue

hyperalgia-excessive pain

hypodermic-under the skin

hyperdontial-above the teeth

hypomastia-deficiency of breast

leukocyte-white blood cell

leukodermia-white skin

leioma-tumor of smooth muscle

lipoma-tumor of fat or fat tissue

melanosarcoma-black malignant tumor

metagenesis-origination of changing condition

neoplasty-surgical repair of new tissue

neozoology-study of new borns

neovenologist-one who studies new veins

phlebotomy-incision into the vein

phrenectomy-excision of diaphragm

phrenitis-inflammation of diaphragm

polydontia-many teeth

polyplegia-paralysis of all the body

sarcoma-malignant tumor of flesh tissue

sarcosis-condition of flesh tissue

trilogy-three studies

uniplegic-paralysis one side of body

venotomy-incision into a vein

zoophobia-fear of animals

zoology-study of animals



PRACTICE EXERCISES FOR LESSON 1

BASIC STRUCTURE OF MEDICAL WORDS



TRUE OR FALSE?

____ The combining of word parts can be made into thousands of medical terms.

____ Medical words use only Latin and Greek word elements.

____ There are currently 15,000 medical terms.

___   Prefixes come at the end of medical terms.

____ Suffixes come at the beginning of medical terms.

___  Word roots are the main part of medical terms.

____ Only one word root can be used in each medical term.

____ Combining vowel helps in spelling.

____ More than one suffix may be used in a medical term.

____ Suffixes are used to define the state of the tissue, organ, or disease.



USING A SLASH (/) DIVIDE THE FOLLOWING MEDICAL TERMS INTO THE CORRECT WORD PARTS.



an/algia

angi/o/plasty

bi/focal

contra/ception

dys/dent/o/gen/ic

em/path/ic

endo/ang/itis

eu/thyr/oid

neo/plasty

veno/tomy

poly/pleg/ic

tri/logy

uni/cellular

dento/tomy

cheir/algia

angi/oma

phren/algia

veno/pleg/ia



DEFINE THE FOLLOWING WORD PARTS:

a-, an- __________________

bi- __________________

carcin- __________________

contra- __________________

dia- __________________

dys- __________________

em, en- __________________

epi- __________________

eti- __________________

hyper- __________________

hypo- __________________

gno- __________________

lei- __________________

leuk- __________________

meta- __________________

neo- __________________

poly- __________________

uni- __________________

-cyte __________________

-ectomy __________________

-genesis __________________

-iatr __________________

-ician __________________

-ologist __________________

-itis __________________

-otomy __________________

-plasty __________________

-ac __________________

-ary __________________

-ous __________________

-tic __________________

-osis __________________

-ia __________________

cheil __________________

dent __________________

hist __________________

aden __________________

cyte __________________

mast __________________

phleb __________________

phren __________________

phob __________________

pleg __________________



DEFINITIONS: BREAK DOWN AND DEFINE EACH MEDICAL TERM



Medical Term Breakdown Definition



autogenic _________________________________________________

brachitis _________________________________________________

dysphrenia _________________________________________________

endodontitis _________________________________________________

neozoology _________________________________________________

polyplegia _________________________________________________

polyangiogenesis _________________________________________________

polyoma _________________________________________________

uniplegia _________________________________________________

dentectomy _________________________________________________

cheiloplasty _________________________________________________

cytology _________________________________________________

phrenic _________________________________________________

trilogy _________________________________________________

venotomy _________________________________________________

zoology _________________________________________________





PROVIDE THE DEFINITION OF EACH MEDICAL TERM

polyoma ________________________________

etiology ________________________________

cytalgia ________________________________

neoplasty ________________________________

phlebotomy ________________________________

venotomy ________________________________

adenoplasty ________________________________

dentist ________________________________

erythrocyte ________________________________

polycytosis ________________________________

melanocyte ________________________________

lipoma ________________________________

mastitis ________________________________

adenomastitis ________________________________

zoophobia ________________________________

dentophobia ________________________________

uniplegia ________________________________

dactylodymia ________________________________

genealogy ________________________________

tricytosis ________________________________

genetics ________________________________

phrenitis ________________________________

adenosis ________________________________

cytogenic ________________________________

dactylology ________________________________

zoogenic ________________________________

unilipoma ________________________________







MATCHING:



_____ a, an-         a new

____ auto-             b against

____ contra-         c inside

____ dys-             d one

____ endo-             e three

____ eu-                 f self

____ neo-                 g many

____ poly-             h good

____ tri-                 i without

____ uni-             j difficult













MATCHING



____ -algia         a incision, into

____ -cyte         b tumor, growth

____ -ectomy     c pain

____ -itis             d cell

____ -oma         e to cut out or remove

____ -otomy     f inflammation

____ dactyl     g vein

____ phleb     h animal

____ aden i digit

____ zoo     j gland





PROVIDE THE CORRECT COMBINING FORM FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING Example: fear - phob/o



Vein ___________________

Mind ___________________

Breast ___________________

Fat ___________________

Cell ___________________

Tissue ___________________

Connective tissue, flesh ___________________

Diaphragm ___________________

Blood vessel ___________________

Gland ___________________

Finger ___________________

Toe ___________________

Lip ___________________

Tooth ___________________

Paralysis ___________________





WRITE THE PREFIX FOR THE FOLLOWING DEFINITIONS:



Self __________

Without __________

Red __________

Cause, causing __________

Excessive __________

Deficient __________

To know __________

In, inside __________

Upon, over __________

Bad, difficult, painful __________

Through, apart, across __________

Opposed, against __________

Cancer __________

Inner, within ___________

Two, twice ___________





MULTIPLE CHOICE: Circle the letter of the most correct answer.

____ The word part that contains the basic meaning of the word is called:

a Prefix

b Suffix

c Combining vowel

d Word root



____ The word part that is attached to the beginning of a term is called:

a Prefix

b Suffix

c Combining vowel

d Word root



____ The word part that is attached to the ending of the term is called:

a Prefix

b Suffix

c Combining vowel

d Word root



____ In the medical term, dermatitis, itis is the:

a Prefix

b Suffix

c Combining vowel

d Word root



____ In the medical term, dysadenic, dys is the:

a Prefix

b Suffix

c Combining vowel

d Word root









____ In the medical term, cytogenic, cyt is the:



a Prefix

b Suffix

c Combining vowel

d Word root



____ In the medical word, adenopathy, o is the:

a Prefix

b Suffix

c Combining vowel

d Word root



____ The most common combining vowel is:

a A

b E

c I

d O

____ All medical terms must contain at least one:

a Prefix

b Suffix

c Combining vowel

d Word root



___ The combining form is made from a:

a Prefix and word root

b Word root and combining vowel

c Word root and suffix

d Combining vowel and suffix



____ In the divided medical word, hist/o/plasty, which part is the word root?

a hist

b o

c plasty

d o/plasty



____ In the divided medical term, lip/o/genic, which part is the suffix?

a ic

b o

c genic

d lip











____ In the divided medical term, poly/pleg/ia, which part is the prefix?

a poly

b plegia

c pleg

d ia



____ Hist/o is the combining form that means:

a Cells

b Organs

c Tissue

d Against



____ The combining form that means cause of disease is:

a Melan/o

b Cyt/o

c Path/o

d Eti/o



____ Lei/o is the combining form that means:

a Fat

b Smooth

c Loin

d Striated



____ The suffix that means surgical repair is:

a -plegia

b -plasty

c -phoria

d -dynia



____ The prefix that means beyond, change, after is:

a hypo-

b hyper-

c meta-

d epi-











____ The suffix that means tumor or swelling is:

a -cyte

b -plegia

c -plasty

d -oma



____ The combining form that means red is:

a leuk/o

b erythr/o

c melan/o

d sarc/o