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UGRC Schedule Fall 2010

Thursday, December 9

4:00 – 4:30 pm Registration     MC Crossroads

            Presenters check in and receive a name badge and program

4:30 – 9:00 pm Poster Sessions           

                Presenters will be available at their displays to answer questions and explain their research from 4:30 until 6:00.

Physical & Life Sciences         MC Crossroads

Social Sciences            MC Crossroads

5:00 – 8:00 pm Oral Sessions

Presentations will be fifteen minutes (12 minutes for the paper and 3 minutes for questions). We have staggered the starting times so that all sessions will end at 8:00.

Languages & Letters (starting 6:30)      MC 176A                    

Life Sciences (starting 6:00)      MC 174A

Physical Sciences (starting 6:15)           MC 174B        

Social Sciences (starting 6:00)   MC 176D

8:00 – 9:00 pm Reception & Refreshments     MC Crossroads

Judges will gather in MC 177 to tabulate scores.

9:00 – 9:30 pm Awards Ceremony      MC Little Theater


Awards will be given to the top three presentations in each session.

UGRC Program Fall 2010


MC Crossroads

4:30 PM

Daniel Zimmer, Electrical Engineering

Jason Schofield

David Call

Kyle Wilkins

Levitating Light Bulb

Through the use of wireless power transfer, we will light a small light bulb that will be suspended by a

magnetic field. The light bulb will consist of a number of small LEDs packaged into a standard

household light bulb which will receive power from reciprocating resonance coils, one placed in the

base of the apparatus to transmit the power, and another in the base of the bulb to receive the power

through induction. This bulb will be magnetically held in place through the use of a Hall Effect sensor

at the top of the apparatus, coupled with a small rare-earth based electromagnet, which interacts with a

small rare-earth magnet in the top of the bulb to maintain lift.

Brandan Lym, Exercise Science

Natalie Scherher

Ron Garner

Cassie Robertson

A New Method for Determining Exercise Intensity to Meet Cardiovascular


The purpose of our study was to determine whether work at lactate threshold (LT) or ventilatory

threshold (VT) is optimal for improvements in cardiovascular fitness. 27 college-aged students (7

females, 20 males) participated in the study. Subjects were separated into groups based on fitness

levels, sedentary (SED), average (AVG) and fit (FIT). Subjects participated in a graded exercise test

(GXT) to determine LT followed by a VO2max test. VO2 at LT was used to determine work rate for a

final run where time to exhaustion (TTE) was recorded. No differences (p = 0.079) in TTE were found

between groups SED, AVG, and FIT, therefore all groups were combined for further analysis. TTE =

33.96 ± 10.97 min; HR at LT =167.77 ± 9.12 bpm; RPE at LT:= 13.19 ± 1.36; VO2max = 53.35 ± 7.67

ml/kg/min-1; VO2 at LT = 39.46 ± 6.02; ml/kg/min-1. Percent VO2max at LT = 74.04 ± 5.26% TTE

was not related to VO2max (p=0.9; r = -0.009). Additionally, TTE was not related to VO2at LT (p =

0.24; r= -0.2). The study determined no correlation between TTE and fitness level measured as both

VO2max, and VO2 at LT. General guidelines typically recommend between 30-60 min of exercise

most days of the week. Other guidelines use RPE, % VO2max, or HR to determine exercise intensity.

We found that by exercising at LT, total exercise time fell within the recommended guidelines of the

ACSM and the CDC for both duration and intensity. Exercise at LT or VT fell within the

recommended guidelines for duration of exercise regardless of fitness level. We recommend using LT

or VT as the guideline for determining exercise intensity.


MC Crossroads

4:30 PM

Kevin McGuire, Geology

The Geochemistry of the Chalk Hills Member of the Catahoula Formation

The Catahoula Formation is found throughout eastern Louisiana and Texas and is composed of layers

of fine to coarse-grained sandstones, shale, and volcanic ash. This research focuses on providing a

petrographic and geochemical description of the Chalk Hills Member of the Catahoula Formation. The

ash is composed of bubble shards, the majority being hydrated with a minority remaining glassy, and

less than five percent subhedral to euhedral sanidine crystals. A TAS plot indicates that the ash is

dacitic in origin. Spider diagram comparisons with EMORB, OIB, and upper and lower crust show

strong negative K, Sr, and Ti and positive Th anomalies. They also indicate that the Catahoula ash is

close to OIB in composition. This implies a magmatic plume-sourced eruptive center as the possible

source of the ash. The REE trend shows a strong negative Eu trend, which, coupled with the negative

K and Sr anomalies in the spider diagrams, suggests a strong effect of plagioclase/sanidine

crystallization on the magma evolution. In addition, a comparison of the ash/OIB REE trends against

elemental partitioning in rhyolites produces trends that nearly mirror each other, suggesting that

plagioclase fractionation was the dominant process in the final magmatic evolution of the sample.

Clayton Pace, Geology

Provo Standstill Wave Energy

During the late Pleistocene, Lake Bonneville was at its highest level known as the Bonneville

Highstand. The lakes threshold failed causing the lake surface to drop more than 100 m to the level

known as the Provo Standstill. The landforms that developed during the Provo Standstill were

determined in large part by the shoreface wave energy. Wind velocity, direction, and storm duration

are factors influencing wave energy; however, this data is unknown. In order to determine Lake Provo

wave energy, the fetch and slope were calculated at 500 m intervals along the shoreface. Fetch and

slope data can be analyzed alongside the geology of the shoreface in order to determine the correct

wave energy. Elevation corrections were made to the Provo Lake data accommodating the isostatic

rebound that occurred because of the decreased load on the crust. Examination of the Lake Provo

landforms in combination with the fetch and slope calculations help us understand the wave energy

that was present during the Provo Standstill.

Meesha Ard, Geology

Petrology of Basaltic Pillow Lavas in Teton Canyon, Idaho, U.S.A.

Three basalt lava flows are exposed near the mouth of Teton Canyon, Idaho, U.S.A., each with a base

of pillow lavas. These flows erupted from a shield volcano on the Rexburg bench, south of the canyon

and dammed the river at three levels. The absence of paleosols between the flows indicates they were

emplaced shortly after one another—likely from the same eruptive event. The basalts contain

phenocrysts of euhedral plagioclase, euhedral to subhedral olivine, & Fe-Ti oxides. The oldest &

youngest flows also contain euhedral clinopyroxene. Like other normal Snake River Plain basalts,

these flows are ferroan, calc-alkalic, medium-K2O, and Nb-rich. The younger flows contain

progressively smaller plagioclase; more euhedral olivine phenocrysts; lower Cr & Ni concentrations;

and higher Rb, Zr, & Ba concentrations—indicating that the magma system became progressively less

evolved as the eruption progressed. This study is part of a larger study to understand the nature of

basalt-river interactions in southeast Idaho.


MC Crossroads

4:30 PM

Stacey Sterling, Exercise Science

Lloyd Lee

Korissa Zollinger

Jason King

The Energy Expenditure of Ballroon Dance

Ballroom dance is quickly becoming a popular form of physical activity. There have been limited

studies regarding the energy expenditure of ballroom dance. The purpose was to determine the energy

expenditure of ballroom dance and compare these results with current ACSM and CDC guidelines for

physical activity. Participants consisted of 24 college-age individuals (12 male, 12 female). Oxygen

uptake was recorded and used to determine energy expenditure during 30-minutes of ballroom dance

(waltz, fox trot, swing, cha cha). Dances were performed in four-minute intervals with two-minute rest

periods between each dance. The swing dance was repeated in order to reach 30-minutes of total

activity. Mean energy expenditure during the 30-minutes of total activity including rest was 5.88 ± 1.7

kcal/min. Energy expenditure during the waltz (6.01 ± 1.8 kcal/min), fox trot (6.01 ± 1.9 kcal/min) and

cha cha (6.41 ± 2.1 kcal/min) were considered moderate activity according to CDC and ACSM

guidelines. The energy expenditure of both swing dances (8.14 ± 2.5 and 7.92 ± 2.5 kcal/min) were

considered vigorous activity by the same guidelines. Ballroom dance is an acceptable form of exercise

and can be used to reach recommended prescription guidelines for physical activity.

Michael Shaw, Biology

Senyo Agbenowu

Tuoen Liu

Alok Bhushan

Jean Pfau

Histone Deacetylase (hDaC) Inhibitors Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Cell

Proliferation in 7TD1 Cells: Implications in Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has become a

promising antitumor agent in Multiple Myeloma. In this study, we examined the effects of the HDAC

inhibitor SAHA on the cell proliferation and apoptosis in both dexamethasone sensitive (7DT1) and

resistant (7TD1-DXM) Multiple Myeloma cells. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry analysis

of Annexin V binding populations. Acetylated histones and apoptosis-associated proteins were

detected by Western blotting. SAHA (0–20μM) induced apoptosis in a concentration- and timedependent

manner in the two cell lines: 7TDI (IC50 of 0.05μM) and 7TD1-DXM (IC50 of 0.5μM).

SAHA treatment caused an accumulation of acetylated histones (H3), an increase in Bax proteins, a

decrease of Bcl2 and Bcl-XL proteins. Treatment with low doses of SAHA significantly increased the

sensitivity of both cell lines to dexamethasone. These finding will be of enormous benefit to clinicians

and patients. Inhibition of HDAC may decrease the dose of adjunct chemotherapy used in routine

clinical practice and also prevent the development of resistance


MC Crossroads

4:30 PM

Steven C. Hansen, Geology

Ryan A. Shurtliff

Samuel L. Grover

Petrology of the Igneous Rocks of the Centennial and Henrys Mountains, Idaho

The Centennial and Henry’s Mountains are located near the Continental Divide on the Idaho-Montana

border and contain ~40 km3 of Eocene shoshonite aa lava flows that overlie local Paleozoic strata and

are cut by feeder dikes. These rocks are exposed in three discontinuous areas each roughly 5 km (E-W)

wide in a 10 x 30 km region. The youngest flow from the westernmost area has a 40Ar/39Ar age of

49.94 ± 0.038 Ma. Because these rocks are located between the Absaroka (to the east) and Challis (to

the west) volcanic fields their petrogenesis may yield useful insights into the Eocene petrotectonic

history of western North America. The volcanic features, petrography, and composition of the Sawtell

Peak shoshonites are remarkably uniform. The flows are sometimes vesicular or amygdaloidal, are

crystal rich, and contain euhedral cpx phenocrysts, commonly-altered ol phenocrysts, and microlites of

plag and Fe-Ti oxides. Major and trace element compositions suggest that these rocks erupted during

(at least) three eruptive episodes; are compositionally similar to the mafic rocks of the Absaroka

(rather than the Challis) volcanic field; and include a significant subduction zone compositional

component—likely from the subduction zone that existed beneath western North America during the


Jacob Kerksiek, Electrical Engineering

Beau Haertling

Affordable Green Energy

Alternative energy sources such as hydro, thermal, and wind are becoming very popular in today’s

―Green‖ environment. This semester we looked specifically at using wind to develop a relatively

inexpensive generator using an array of permanent magnets. Using E&M principles we designed and

built a working 3-phase dc generator. Our target power output was 400 watts (enough to power a small

dwelling in a developing country). Our design budget was $300.00. The purpose of this project was

only to develop the actual generator. The mechanical means to turn the generator such as a windmill,

turbine, or other source were outside the scope of the project.


MC Crossroads

4:30 PM

Erika Hales, Psychology

Gender Differences in Body Satisfaction and Estimated Weight

For my study, I wanted to see whether males and females at BYU-Idaho tended to overestimate their

weight or underestimate it and if there was a difference between the genders. I also wanted to see

whether body satisfaction played a role in the estimation of weight. The literature shows that females

report more body dissatisfaction than males. However, on the issue of whether a specific gender tends

to over or underestimate more than the other, research conclusions can be found to support either

viewpoint. I hypothesized that women would overestimate more than men and men would

underestimate more than women. After conducting this study, I observed which findings in the

literature most closely resembled my results.

Kacie Birtcher, Psychology

Veronica Zanni

Motivation: What Factors Encourage Students to Graduate?

We want to see what the contributing factors are in student’s motivation to complete their education. In

order to gain quantitative data we created and sent out a survey via email to 500 students from

freshman to senior year to evaluate what motivates them to graduate. In analyzing our feedback, we

have discovered that more internal factors, such as satisfaction and self-fulfillment held more weight

than external factors, such as good income and career aspiration.

Matt Nearents, Psychology

The Faces of Cars: Impacts on Trait Attribution

My study aims to explore how people see facial expressions in cars and anthropomorphize human

characteristics onto cars in the form of trait attribution. My study takes four cars, removes the

identifying information and asks participants to rate the car on two personality characteristics: friendlyhostile,

and submissive-dominant. Participants are also asked to rate whether they perceive a facial

expression on the car front and which universal expression they see.

Travis Bowers, Psychology

Do Grades Affect Student Evaluations?

The purpose of this study is show evidence that student grades affect instructor evaluations at Brigham

Young University-Idaho. Evaluations from six colleges were collected from the winter 2010 semester.

Three of the colleges had high GPA’s and the other three had low GPA’s. From each college 2 classes

were taken. One of the classes had a high GPA and the other had a low GPA. For this study we

hypothesized that a high class GPA’s correlates with a high instructor rating; we used a point biserial

correlation to show this. We also hypothesized that a student’s expected grade will significantly relate

to a high or low class GPA; we also used a point biserial correlation to show this. Our results show that

the grade’s students receive in a course affects their rating of the instructor and the course.


MC Crossroads

4:30 PM

Alex North, Psychology

Arwen Behrends

Kayla Green

Luis Oquendo

Individualistic and Structural Attributions of Poverty in the LDS Population

Because of the importance and prevalence of poverty in the world there has been a significant amount

of research done on the lay attributions of poverty and the subsequent influence on helping behavior.

The purpose of this study was to further the work on how religion mediates poverty attributions by

extending the research into an LDS population. 144 BYU-Idaho students filled out an internet based

survey. The survey used a 5 point scale to measure students attributions of poverty. A factor analysis

revealed six factors that accounted for 62.9% of the variance, while an ANOVA test showed that an

individualistic and structural attributions were used more than fatalistic attributions to explain poverty.

Because of the high Conservative influence in the LDS sample we hypothesized that the individualistic

attribution would be the more popular. Our hypothesis was only partially supported. It appears that

religious influence reduced the effect that political orientation exerted on poverty attribution.

Jeff Laugenour, Psychology

The Effect of Warm and Cool Colors on the Desirability of Food

Many factors contribute to the overall desirability of food. On such factor is the color of both the food,

and the packaging it is presented with. This study investigates the affect of the warmth or coolness of

the packaging color of a food has on its overall desirability. It proposes that warmer colors have a

greater positive impact on food desirability then cooler colors.

Jessica Green, Psychology

The Comparison of Methods for Coping with Stress in Combat Situations from

the Vietnam, Gulf, and Iraqi/Afghani War

This study discusses how stress affects militants within the United States Army, and does a comparison

of lifestyles to analyze how each person handled their respective stressful situations. This is a pilot

study of seven people because of limitations placed on the study itself, and it was conducted here on

the BYU-Idaho campus. This study is a Mixed Methods study. There was an Interview conducted with

each person and a questionnaire given to each person to better measure it from an empirical stance.


MC 176A

6:45 PM

Sarah Baird, English

Animal vs. Human: Exploring Carnality and Rationality through Zoomorphism

in The Horse Dealers Daughter

D.H. Lawrence’s short story, ―The Horse Dealer’s Daughter,‖ has received very little attention in the

world of critical analysis. Those who have written on it have mainly focused on how the story is a

journey from misery to an awakening and spiritual re-birth. All of these critics make valid points that I

agree with. However, I take a different approach to this famous short story. In the research I have done,

none of the critics take a deeper look into the animal imagery within the story. There is too much animal

imagery contained in the story for it to be ignored. I argue that in ―The Horse Dealer’s Daughter,‖

Lawrence compares the striking contrasts between the carnal human being and the rational human being

through his use of zoomorphism, or the giving of animal mannerisms to human beings. Through my

analysis, the audience will discover the natural or carnal instincts of human beings when faced with

desperation, which can lead to irrational thinking. Through my analysis of the heroine’s decision to

walk away from these instincts, readers will also learn how rationality overcomes carnality.

7:00 PM

Benjamín Ocampo, History

Steinbeck’s Marginal Man in Tortilla Flat

The examination of the marginalization of Danny of Tortilla Flat, the main character of the novel

demonstrates the perils of the marginal man and how in the end he cannot belong to two societies

without ultimately choosing one or the other, and losing his previous identity. In short, Danny is an

example of the marginal man and through this marginalization his primitive identity is challenged by

civilized society and is ultimately lost.

7:15 PM

Rosa Lea V. Ojeda, English

The Gift of Exposure

O. Henry’s short story, ―The Gift of the Magi‖ has typically been viewed as the ultimate portrayal of

altruism. Henry’s stories are known for their surprise endings of bringing good out of bad situations.

Could it be possible that the ―good‖ he has written actually disguises the bad? In ―The Gift of the Magi‖

Henry attacks women. For example, the first description of Della is that of a sobbing woman, who does

nothing but think about how little money she has. Her hair, representing her beauty, is her most prized

possession. Her beauty is everything to her, and to her husband. When she cuts her hair, she doubts her

self-worth, showing us that a woman is only as good as her looks. Della continually asks for her

husband’s approval of her looks, implying that a woman’s worth is determined by man. That Della loses

her worth when she cuts her hair is evident because Jim never actually tells Della she is pretty. Henry

also makes a point to describe Jim as ―needing a new overcoat‖ and ―without gloves.‖ Instead of buying

Jim what he actually needed, and what she could afford, Della chose to sell what was important to her

for a man. Della sacrificed a part of herself for her husband because women’s needs come secondary to

men’s. Henry wrote ―The Gift of the Magi‖ while he was in prison, calling his credibility into question.

Many women in Henry’s life died, causing him to view women as weak and feeble and to blame them

for his grief. Henry’s seemingly sweet tale blinds readers to what the story actually does: demeans,

objectifies, and marginalizes women through the use of diction, tone, and symbolism.


MC 176A

7:30 PM

Timothy Ng, International Studies

New Texts from Social Media: Tweets from Beyond the Great Firewall

The introduction of Web 2.0 social media has given a new voice to millions of Internet users all around

the globe; nowhere has this been more apparent than in China and Far-East Asia. Since the fiber-optic

boom of the mid-1990s, the world has become connected to a previously unfathomable stream of

communication and information that is changing not only individual and social behaviors, but is

affecting highly influential topics like global politics as well. With a focus on current Chinese social

media trends, particularly in regard to their adoption of the micro-blogging platform Twitter, this study

will observe how new and influential literary texts are being created, despite opposition from an

increasingly aggressive Internet censorship regime originating from the nation’s communist

government. The study will further analyze the authors of these new texts, namely native political

dissidents who are taking advantage of the latest Internet technologies, to inform and voice their

criticisms to not only their oppressors, but the rest of the world. Although the phenomenon is relatively

new and still in its early stages, the research will reveal historical precedents to these dissident texts

that stretch as far back as the days of imperial rule, to events that have occurred as recently as within

this last generation. In addition, the study will speculate Twitter’s potential role in encouraging

political reform within the Chinese mainland.

7:45 PM

Katelyn Ericson, English

A Matter of Choice: A Critical Look at C.S. LewisThe Great Divorce

At troubled times like these, the tendency to ask the age old questions of ―what is my purpose?‖, ―why

am I here?‖, and ―where am I going‖ seem to become more important. It is a mystery that men for

thousands of years have tried to solve. The unknown world of the afterlife is so easily attained, yet

many do not have any clue to what it may be like. Is there really a heaven or a hell? And if there is,

what do you do to get there? C.S. Lewis, in his book The Great Divorce, attempts to answer these

questions. The focus of his book revolves around a trip from Hell up to Heaven. Each character that

arrives is given the opportunity to make a change in their life that would allow them to stay, but many

refuse such an offer. Critics have argued a variety of reasons regarding the Lewis’s purpose: teaching

doctrine of good vs. bad, the principles of turning toward God, and the description of the righteous and

evil—but they have only barely glazed over one of the most important concepts of the entire novel—

the principle of agency. An understanding of this concept, (sometimes described as the innate power

each man has to make decisions for themselves—regardless of anything or anyone else), is critical to

the overlying message of the novel. Everything ties back into this principle. Once the reader sees how

this fits, they can understand more fully why the difference between Heaven and hell is a matter of

personal choice.


MC 174A

6:00 PM

Garrett Weldon, Exercise Physiology

Dane Owens

Complex vs. Complex-Eccentric Training on Short Term Vertical Jump Height

Recent evidence suggests that additional loading during the eccentric phase of lower body plyometric

exercises may illicit greater increases in vertical jump height (VJH) when compared to results without

additional loading (Myszka, 2009). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on short-term

VJH when additional loading during the eccentric phase of the plyometric portion of complex training

(combination of resistance training and biomechanically similar plyometric exercises on each training

day) is added to a standard complex training program. Ten subjects were randomly assigned to one of

two training programs: complex training (CPX) or complex-eccentric training (CPXE). Five other

subjects that did not want to participate in resistance or plyometric exercises were assigned to a control

(CON) group. Each subjects’ VJH was recorded pre and post training. During the 5 ½ weeks of

training both CPXE and CPX groups performed the same resistance protocol but differed in how the

eccentric phase of the plyometrics were done. A one way ANOVA was used to compare changes.

Vertical jump in the CPXE group (8.64 ± 2.75 cm) increased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared

to both the CPX group (3.81 ± 2.69 cm) and the CON group (0.64 ± 0.73 cm). VJH for the CPX group

alone did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase when compared with the CON group. In a 5 ½ week

period of training CPXE increases VJH significantly when compared with CPX or CON.

6:15 PM

Aly Barthelmes, Exercise Science

Allison Eliason

The Effect of Macronutrient Breakfast on Overall Calorie Intake

Eating breakfast each morning is very important as it provides necessary energy. The type of

macronutrient found in breakfast may influence type of food eaten throughout the day. Eating

breakfast may decrease overeating and promote healthier eating, thus halting the steady rise of obesity.

The purpose of our study is to determine whether a breakfast composed of a single macronutrient will

affect the total caloric intake consumed each day. Thirty test subjects between ages 18 and 40 were

recruited for the study. Each person was given a breakfast to be eaten every morning for five days

consisting of either protein (chunk light tuna), simple carbohydrate (Berry Colassal Crunch cereal), or

complex carbohydrate (old fashioned rolled oats). Test subjects recorded their food intake daily and

researchers used that data to estimate calorie consumption per day for each individual. Data was then

compared between individuals and among groups.


MC 174A

6:30 PM

Joshua Cady, Biology

Chloe Stenkamp-Strahm

Ailene MacPherson

Neuropathy of the Enteric Nervous System Due to a High Fat Diet

Mice fed a 72% fat diet have been shown to have symptoms of enteric

neuropathy, insulin resistance and obesity at 8 and 16 week study periods. In an effort to monitor the

early onset of these changes, mice were analyzed after a 2 week period. Data concerning glial cell

integrity, sensory and excitatory motor neuron activity showed mostly non-significant values between

test and control mice.

6:45 PM

Tyler W. LeBaron, Exercise Physiology

Functional Water for Prevention and Treatment of Diseases

The incurable, chronically ill, or otherwise afflicted have been pilgrimaging to Nordenua to drink the

so-called healing waters. Clinical trials consisting of over 2000 diabetic patients have verified that

these ―natural reduced waters‖ can indeed improve important blood parameters. It has been revealed

that the main agent responsible for these benefits is hydrogen gas. Recently, hydrogen has been

extensively studied for its therapeutic properties as a regulator, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and its

anti-apoptotic protective effects. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) exhibits a negative oxidation

reduction potential and zeta-potential, supersaturated with nanosize hydrogen bubbles existing in

negative colloidal forms around the hydroxides. ERW was approved by the Japanese Ministry of

Health and Welfare in 1965 for its therapeutic effects. Many studies have been published concerning

its application; including, prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis,

reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokines, amelioration of impaired lipid and glucose metabolism,

prevention of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, suppression of cancer cell proliferation, and longevity.

Though there are numerous studies on these topics, a comprehensive literature review does not exist

This will be the first review written, which will help move the scientific community forward in new

directions for the prevention and treatment of diseases.

7:00 PM

John Cornelius, Biology

Ben Nelson

Jose Alvarez

Steven Miles

Phagocytosis as a Viable Means of Horizontal Gene Transfer

Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) is increasingly noted as the cause of the appearance of species

specific sequences in other, non-related organisms. Previous work has indicated phagocytosis, the

engulfing of extracellular bodies for nutrition, as a potential mechanism of transferring viable DNA

sequences into Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba. As an extension of this work, we here investigate

phagocytosis as a viable means of HGT in murine (mouse) microglia, the resident white blood cells in

neural tissue. Successful insertion of transferred genes into these cells represents a novel mode of

peptide delivery to the central nervous system.


MC 174A

7:15 PM

Jared Roberts, Exercise Science

Chris Madsen

Hyrum Anderton

The Effects of Progressive Static Stretching on Anaerobic Power Performance

Perceptions of a single bout of static stretching have been negative in correlation with anaerobic power

performance. Studies have not concluded whether static stretching over an extended period of time will

increase or decrease anaerobic performance. The purpose of this experiment is to prove that

progressive static stretching over time will increase ones overall anaerobic performance. Nine active

participants were assigned randomly to one of three groups and asked to stretch either before or after

training. Testing was completed both before and after the study.

7:30 PM

Shaun Huntington, Exercise Physiology

Ryan Daw

Jessica Mearns

How Unstable Training Affects Performance

Performance in sports demands a high degree of coordination, muscle control, and balance, each of

which are stressed by training the body in an environment that requires heightened proprioception and

multiple muscle groups to be recruited simultaneously. When an individual is training on an unstable

surface, balance and proprioception are increased. The purpose of this study was to determine if

training on unstable surfaces had an effect on lateral movement, explosive power, and core strength.

Ten male and female students ages 18-25 enrolled in a beginning weight training class, volunteered,

and were randomly assigned to this study. Two comparison groups were established and each

performed a total body workout with unstable squats and lunges as the variable. Workouts took place

twice a week for approximately one hour over the course of a six week training period.

7:45 PM

Nathan O’Dell, Exercise Science

Robert Welker

Rachel Carlisle

Effects of Squat Training Barefoot

Studies have been conducted showing that wearing shoes decreased the natural calcaneal stability of

the subject compared to the barefooted subjects, therefore this decrease in stability caused more

injuries in shod subjects then to those who were barefoot. The purpose of this experiment was to study

whether or not a strength training program conducted barefoot, would have increased power output

compared to those who trained with shoes measured by a 1 repetition maximum in the back squat.

Eight untrained college students enrolled in a Brigham Young University-Idaho weight training class

were assigned to two groups prior to training: barefoot (B) and shoes (S). All students participated in

the same strength training regime as prescribed by the strength and conditioning research team

designed for six weeks. Pre- and post-training tests were conducted for the 1 RM back squat. Analysis

of Variance was calculated for all dependent variable and significance levels were set a p<.05.


MC 174B

6:15 PM

Scott Fuller, Physics

Research Capabilities of BYU-Idaho Telescope and Variable Star Study of RV

Ursa Major

The BYU-Idaho Physic’s Department recently acquired a 250mm f/4 Maksutov Newtonian telescope

for use by undergraduates and faculty. In order for students to obtain quality images that can be used

for research, they must understand several techniques. These techniques include focusing, autoguiding,

and image reduction. Images are taken with a SBIG ST-7XME charge-coupled device (CCD). CCDs

are employed in many modern astronomical research projects and their solid-state design allows for

detailed photometric studies such as variable star studies. Variable stars are those whose apparent

brightness changes with respect to the observer. RV Ursa Major is one such star. Following detailed

research of RV Ursa Major, its period was found to be 0.46746 ± 0.00395 days. The phase curve of the

star was also created based on the results of images taken over an 11-day period in August 2010. This

research is designed to guide future projects by BYU-Idaho undergraduates and faculty members.

6:30 PM

Brett Stone, Mechanical Engineering

A Hybrid Future and How BYU-I Students Can Help Shape It

The feasibility of BYU-Idaho students from the Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and

Automotive Technology Departments designing and building a hybrid vehicle was researched. A wide

range of project ideas were evaluated against several important criteria using a decision matrix. Items

such as cost, available space and tools, project relevance, and number of students who would benefit

were included.

6:45 PM

David Perry, Biology

Using Gamma Wave Energies to Map Defects in Metallic Surfaces

Annihilation events of positrons and electrons give off two gamma ray photons. The typical energy

associated with such an event is 511 keV per gamma ray—the common rest energy of the electron and

positron plus their kinetic energy. However, this can be affected by the velocity of the electrons in the

annihilation events. When positrons collide with high momentum core electrons the spread of gamma

wave energies typically widens. For example, instead of giving off two gamma rays of equal energies,

such an annihilation event may give off one ray of greater and one of equally less energy due to the

Doppler Effect. Using standardized samples of annealed and shot-peened copper we hope to identify

which wave energies are typical of surface defects and use that data to make two-dimensional defect

maps in other materials. We expect to improve the precision of the techniques to the point of

consistently mapping 15 x 20 cm objects. Obstacles to our goals include short- and long-term

repeatability of the process (including sample positioning error) and consistency of results compared to

error tolerance. Using 15-minute data segments we intend to measure and minimize margins of error

and improve the limitations of these techniques.


MC 174B

7:00 PM

Brock Shenton, Geology

Kevin McGuire

Composition and Petrogenesis of the Basalts of the Island Park Area, Idaho

The Island Park area is located in the southwestern portion of the nested Yellowstone I, Henry’s Fork,

and Yellowstone II calderas in eastern Idaho. The area centers on the 1.2 Ma partially-filled Henry’s

Fork caldera and is largely surfaced by mafic rocks. Like the Yellowstone II caldera, the Island park

area records the transition from rhyolite- to basalt-dominated magmatism that characterizes the

development of volcanic fields in the Yellowstone Snake River Plain volcanic province (YSRP). This

study reports the compositions of the mafic rocks of the Island Park area and infers their petrogenesis

by comparing their compositions to those of YSRP rocks for which petrogenetic models have already

been developed. Like other mafic rocks of the YSRP those in the Island Park area are dominantly

ferroan; calcic to calc-alkalic; low- to medium-K2O; and Nb-rich. Three basic petrogenetic magma

series have been identified for the YSRP: 1) A distinctly bimodal basalt-rhyolite (normal YSRP)

series. This series is volumetrically dominant and consists of upwelling-mantle-derived basalts and

associated anatectic rhyolites. Fractional crystallization and minor assimilation variably contribute to

compositions of this series. 2) A magma mixing series. This series is much less common and is

characterized by compositions derived from mixing of the basalt and rhyolite magmas of the bimodal

series. 3) An extensive fractional crystallization series. This series is uncommon and consists of the

fractionation products—including rhyolite—of the normal YSRP basalt of the bimodal series. The

mafic rocks of the Island Park area dominantly belong to the normal YSRP series. Like the

Yellowstone system, the Henry’s Fork system includes above-average abundance of the extensive

fractional crystallization series. Unlike the Yellowstone system, the transition to mafic magmatism in

the Henry’s Fork system occurred with very little magma mixing—both in volume and in the extent of

mixing. These observations suggests that magmas belonging to the magma mixing and fractional

crystallization series are more common during the transition from rhyolite- to basalt-dominated

volcanism in the YSRP, and that the abundance and extent of mixing during the transition is

determined by the size and persistence of the granitic magma body of the system.

7:15 PM

Amy Ferguson, Physics

Summer at NIST

The first project I did at NIST was with a solar cell. The purpose was to find the External Quantum

Efficiency (EQE) by measuring the current across the solar cell and by finding the intensity of light at

the solar cell. I then started working on measuring the index of refraction (n) and dielectric constant (k)

of a thin film of iron on silicon. I etched pieces of the sample for different amounts of time in

phosphoric acid and then measured n and k. I graphed the data to find trends. Research is continuing

on both of these projects by my adviser, Dr. Nhan Nguyen.


MC 174B

7:30 PM

Jacopo Lafranceschina, Physics

Deformable Mirrors in Close Loop

Using a deformable mirrors device and optical instruments, we set up experiment to correct user

aberration in close loop system. We developed parts of Matlab codes that run the algorithm that makes

the system work.

7:45 PM

Patrick L. Norby, Geology

Coral Abundance, Diversity, and Body Size Decrease with Depth in the Early

Mississipian Lodgepole Formation, Montana

The Early Mississippian (Kinderhookian) Lodgepole Formation of southwest Montana was deposited

in an upper ramp to slope setting situated between the Antler Foredeep to the west and a broad

carbonate platform to the east. Three primary depositional environments are recognized based on

predictable differences in sedimentology and paleontology, including from onshore to offshore: 1)

outer ramp, 2) proximal slope, and 3) distal slope to basin environments. Rugose and tabulate corals

comprise a large portion of the macrofossil fauna in the Lodgepole Formation. Solitary rugose corals

are by far the most common coral taxa and are found in all three depositional environments. In

contrast, colonial rugose and tabulate corals are comparatively rare and mostly occur in outer ramp and

proximal slope environments. Generally, coral abundance, diversity, and body size decrease from

proximal to distal slope environments. Colonial corals from the proximal slope are largest and exhibit

the best preservation. Sedimentological observations suggest that colonial corals may have been

limited in abundance and size by frequent turbidite disturbance. The observed size ranges of coral

colonies suggest that the frequency of terminal obrution events during the accumulation of Lodgepole

sediments was on the order of a few years to decades.


MC 176D

6:00 PM

Elizabeth Anderson, English

Arwen Behrends

A Study of Note-taking Methods

Many students believe ―that taking notes in class . . . helped them understand a class lecture‖ (Huang,

2006). Our hypothesis is when notes are handwritten and then transcribed connection, personal use and

application, and later reference to the material will be greater than if the notes are taken only by hand

or only with computer software. 72 randomly selected undergraduate students from BYU-Idaho

received a survey of 12 questions that assessed their note-taking method, and if they connected their

notes to other classes and personal experiences. The participants were sent an email containing a link

to the survey. Only the responses that indicated using either hand or computer note taking methods

were used in the analysis. SPSS was used to run statistical analysis of the results. The results were not

significant for any of the factors tested. However, these results indicate that the quality of notes taken,

rather than the method that increases connections. The conditions were largely uneven, with only one

participant that reported using the note taking method this study sought to analyze. Future research

may be designed to determine if quality of notes rather than the note taking is a better indicator for

connections made.

6:15 PM

Scott Hurst, Psychology

Effects of Parental Divorce on Adult Children

The methodology of the proposed study is straightforward; married BYU-Idaho students will be asked

if their parents are still married or divorced and at what age they married. After collecting the data,

populations of students with divorced parents will be compared with those whose parents are still

married. The aim is to find a statistically significant difference in the age at which students married

depending on the situation of their family of origin.

6:30 PM

David B. Thacker, Psychology

Determinants of Attractiveness in LDS Culture

This study aims to see whether women will rate a man’s facial attractiveness higher based on whether

he has completed certain religious tasks. The main research question to be answered here is whether a

man is thought to be more attractive depending on whether he has or has not served a mission for The

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The participants include 53 LDS women in

the control group and 16 LDS women in the experimental group. Data was collected via use of a

slideshow featuring a fake biography followed by two pictures of a man’s face. ANOVA was used as

the statistical procedure.


MC 176D

6:45 PM

Arwen A. Behrends, Psychology

Handling Conflict in Online and Face-to-face Groups

The purpose was to describe the different methods that a decision-making group uses when dealing

with an uncooperative member in an online and face-to-face setting. The hypothesis was that the online

group would spend significantly more time in opposition and engage in more confrontative or

disagreement type comments. Fifteen BYUI students were recruited from either a random selection

from juniors/seniors or were recruited from a general psychology and a foundations class. Participants

were assigned to either an online or face-to-face group. Each group was given the prompt to come up

with three ways in which BYUI approved housing needs to change and was given 20 minutes to come

up with a unanimous decision. The face-to-face groups were video recorded and transcripts of the

online groups were kept for analysis. A confederate was used to create conflict within the group by

disagreeing with the final decision. The transcripts were analyzed with the Group Working Relations

Coding System and the Interpersonal Conflict Interaction Coding System. Analysis found that the

online group spent significantly more time in opposition and was less likely to engage in negotiation

and used stronger confrontative remarks than the face-to-face group.

7:00 PM

Cody Naccarato, Psychology

Self Diagnosing Depression

This research looks at people are their ability to accurately diagnose their own level of depression in

comparison to the ―average‖ American. I believe because of self-serving bias that the subjects will

believe that they are not as depressed as the average American. This study uses 33 participants of

BYU-I, both male and female, who filled out a survey for determining current levels of depression

along with what they believe their own level of depression is. SPSS will be used to figure out if there is

any correlation between the levels of depression and the self-diagnoses.

7:15 PM

Justin Larson, Psychology

Kathryne Reinholm

Marriage Satisfaction and Gaming: Are the Two Incompatible?

The purpose of our study is to examine the effect that multiplayer gaming usage and addiction has on

marriage. Our independent variable is the usage of video games and their impact on marriage—this

study will help provide a better understanding of: the gaming behaviors of married individuals who

play Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game(s)—i.e. World of Warcraft, Eve, any/all

Facebook—internal games (i.e. Farmville, MafiaWars, Farm Town, etc.)—gaming addiction, time

spent gaming, satisfaction in gaming participation, interaction between spouses gaming together, and

the resulting marital satisfaction levels of both individuals in the couple.


MC 176D

7:30 PM

Marlaina Lemmon, Sociology

Jennifer Schipper

Becky Taylor

Kira Middleton

Cait Raney

How Does Level of Outgoingness Affect Dating Frequency?

The main purpose of our study was to examine the links between an outgoing personality and

frequency of dating, with particular interest in social interactions on college campuses with rate of

dating. The participants in this study were 400 single BYU-I college students (200 males; 200

females). The students completed a computer survey on their self-perceived outgoingness related to

their dating frequency. T-test analysis revealed that higher levels of perceived outgoingness relate to a

greater amount of dates. We found outgoingness to be a highly desired trait in a potential date, whether

the person identified themselves as outgoing or not.

7:45 PM

Jeremy Oswald, Recreation Management

A Mixed Methods Investigation Comparing the Happiness and Enjoyment

Levels Between Five Majors at BYU-Idaho

As a place of continuous educational innovation, BYU-Idaho has implemented several programs over

recent years to enhance the student experience. Researchers in the field of positive psychology

continue to explore human flourishing and enhancing the human experience. This report brings both

missions together in an effort to apply principles of positive psychology to increase the classroom

experience and overall experience at BYU-Idaho, focusing principally on the tested hypothesis that

happier people are more productive and enjoy benefits that others do not. 300 students selected from

the business management, English, mechanical engineering, music, and nursing majors were invited to

fill out a brief online happiness measurement to see if different majors scored differently from one

another. They were also asked provide insight as to what they enjoy about their particular field of

study. Although the differences in composite score results of the happiness measure were not

statistically significant, the motivations and sources of enjoyment within each field of study were

significant and insightful. These insights will provide instructors with ideas that will make their

curriculum and approach to teaching and learning more enjoyable, and that this will increase the

happiness and productivity of students at BYU-Idaho.



UGRC Faculty Mentors Fall 2010



Brigham Young University – Idaho


Department of Biology

               Doug Gardner


Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Richard Grimmett


Department of English

Jason Williams
Eugene Thompson

Department of Exercise and Sports Science

Eli Lankford

            Steve Kimpel


Department of Foreign Language

Scott Galer                             


Department of Geology

               Forest J. Gahn

Ben Jordan

Daniel K. Moore

Daren Nelson


Department of Home and Family

               Jay Keller


Department of Mechanical Engineering

               Adam Dean


Department of Physics

               Stephen McNeil

               Evan Hansen


Department of Psychology

Yohan Delton

Eric Gee


Department of Recreation Management

               Kari Archibald


Department of Sociology and Social Work

               Mike Abel


Department of Teacher Education

            Chris Wilson



Idaho State University

Christopher K. Daniels



University of Idaho

               Onesmo Balemba



University of Padova, Italy

               Stefano Bonora


UGRC Fall 2010 Awards

Physical and Life Science Posters

1. Michael Shaw

2. Steven Hansen

3. Brandan Lym

Social Science Posters

1. Matt Nearents

2. Kacie Birtcher & Veronica Zanni

3. Alex North, Arwen Behrends, Kayla Green & Luis Oquendo

Social Science Orals

1. Arwen Behrends

2. David Thacker

3. Jeremy Oswald

Life Science Orals

1. Ben Nielsen, Jose Alvarez, Steven Miles & John Cornelius

2. Garrett Weldon & Dane Owens

3. Nathan O’Dell, Robert Welker, & Rachel Carlisle

Language and Letters Orals

1. Sarah Baird

2. Benjamin Ocampo

3. Timothy Ng

Physical Science Orals

1. Brock Shenton & Kevin McGuire

2. Jacopo Lafranceschina

3. Patrick Norby