REL 390 R

Ancient Temples and Temple Texts
Bruce K. Satterfield, PhD
Department of Religious Education (Taylor 216)
"Hierophany," in Encyclopedia of Religion, 2 Ed., 15 vols.,  Ed. in Chief, Lindsay Jones (McMillian Reference, USA, 2005) 6:3970-74. Brigham Young University--Idaho

 Encyclopedia of Religion, 2 end., 14 vols. (2005), 8:5273-5279



Grading Syllabus  (updated for Fall 2019)

Daily Reading/Assignment Schedule--Fall 2019 Updated 25 Sep 2019

What is at Temple?  What is considered a Temple?

There are a number of different kinds of religious structures that can be found in the ancient world. For example, Mormon mentions three kinds of structures built by Book of Mormon peoples: temples, synagogues, and sanctuaries (see Helaman 3:14). This fact raises interesting questions such as, "How does one distinquish between these various structures?" "What constitutes a sanctuary? a synagogue? More to the point of this course, "What constitutes a temple?"

At first, the answer might seem simple. A temple is a temple when called a temple by the people who built it.

Unfortunately, many ancient peoples did not have a separate and unique word specific used to designate a building as a temple. For example, the Israelites used various words to label a structure a temple such as bayit (house), hekal (palace), har (mountain), miqdash (sanctuary), quodesh and quodesh makom (the holy place), mishkan (sanctuary or divine abode), and ohel mo'ed (tent of meeting, or feast, or reunion).  But the word bayit could refer to a temple of a god or the dwelling place of a mortal man. Likewise, hekal (palace) could refer to the palace of a god or a king. Only context tells one if a bayit or hekal is referring to a structure for a god.

So what is a temple?
What is a temple? Power Point

As the last slide of this power point states: In this course, we will define a temple as a structure or dwelling place of a god or gods, or other objects of religious reference and a place where worship of that object may occur.


Temple Typologies

Nauvoo Temple

Original Nauvoo Temple
        Rare Photograph
        Daguerreotype Picture
        Floor Plan
        Drawing - Front  or West Side View
        Drawing - Back or East Side View
        Drawing of a pilaster with stars
        Original Sunstone  (BYU)
        Original Moonstone  (BYU)
The Salt Lake Temple
Teotihuacan - Mesoamerica-Mexico
Mesoamerican Temples

Temple Studies--Articles

Temple Typologies

General Discussions -- There have been many who have noted similarities in what consistutes a temple in the ancient world.  The following articles  suggest various typologies that can be used to define a structure uniquely referring to temple.
  • Hugh Nibley, "What is a Temple?" in Ed. Truman G. Madsen, The Temple in Antiquity (1984), pp. 19-37.
Resources for the Study of Temple Typologies
The following is a list of possible typologies, or category of typologies, that are helpful in understanding temple wor  Click on each typology for resources that help in the study of that typology--

  • JSTOR--Through the McKay Library, all faculty and students have free access to Library Databases that are used for  researching academic scholarly journals (past and present) in most acadmeic fields of study. JSTOR is a search engine tool searching of hundreds of scholarly journals that would be very useful in searching your typology.  I strongly urge you to use it in your research regarding your typology. You can use this in the Library or on your own computer--it will require you BYUI user name and password.
(I have provided the link to McKay Library and JSTOR. On the McKay Library link, look for the A--Z button called Library DATABASES and click on it. On the right side under the ARTICLES heading you will see JSTOR. Click on it. You will need your BYUI user name and password. The JSTOR link takes you right to JSTOR--it also will require your BYUI user name and password.)
Divine Council or Assembly

Bibliographies of Temple Studies in Ancient Near East By Region
From A Bibliography on Temples of the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean World, compiled by Donald W. Parry, Stephen D. Ricks, and John  W. Welch (Edwin Mellen Press, LTD, Lewiston, NY, 1991)

Power Point Presentations